RBSE Class 10 English Prose Chapter 8 A Discourse on Prayer Solutions

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BoardRBSE
TextbookSIERT, Rajasthan
ClassClass 10
SubjectEnglish
ChapterChapter 8
Chapter NameA Discourse on Prayer
Number of Questions Solved29
CategoryRBSE Solutions

Activity 1: Comprehension

A. Choose the correct alternative:
1. The lesson is about:
(a) the necessity of religion
(b) the necessity of prayer
(c) the need for physical requirements
(d) None of the above

2. In a better prayer’ according to Gandhi ji, one should have:
(a) a heart without words
(b) words without a heart
(c) neither words nor heart
(d) both words and heart

3. Which, according to Gandhiji, is the greatest prayer for human beings?
(a) meditation
(b) worshiping god
(c) service of mankind
(d) abiding by religion
Answers.
1.-(b),
2.-(a),
3.-(d).

B. Say whether the following statements are True or False:
1. Prayer is the essence of religion. True
2. Atheist also acknowledges the need for moral principle. False
3. Prayer is mere exercise of words or of the ears. False
4. Prayer does not bring any inward peace. False
5. For true prayer and communion with the divine one has to make serious efforts to throw off the attachments of the world for a while. True
6. There are no laws which can control the Universe. False
7. It is discipline and restraint that separate us from animals. True

C. Answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each:

Question 1.
Where was this lecture delivered by Gandhiji?
Answer.
This lecture was delivered by Gandhiji at Sabarmati Ashram to the inmates who had come there in search for truth. In this lecture he emphasized on the need of purity of mind and heart through prayer.

Question 2.
Who constituted the audience of this lecture by Gandhiji?
Answer.
A group of students at Sabarmati Ashrama constituted the audience of this lecture. Gandhiji told them that the purity of mind and heart can be achieved by dint of prayer.

Question 3.
What was the central idea of his speech?
Answer.
The central idea of his speech was the importance of purity of mind and heart. He confirms that we can get it by means of sincere prayers.

Question 4.
Why should prayer be the essence of human life in Gandhiji’s opinion?
Answer.
Prayer is the soul and essence of religion and no man can live without religion. Therefore Gandhiji has an opinion that prayers be the essence of human life.

Question 5.
What type of prayer does Gandhiji describe in this lecture?
Answer.
Gandhiji describes two types of prayer in his lecture. One is petition and the other is inward communion.

Question 6.
Do you think that prayer brings discipline in life?
Answer.
Prayer is a necessary spiritual discipline. It disciplines and trains our mind and separates us from the violence or brute.

Question 7.
What should be the mission of a human being in life?
Answer.
The mission of human beings in life is to serve their fellow beings. They should impose some sort of spiritual disciple to separate themselves from brutes.

D. Answer the following questions in about 60 words each:

Question 1.
How does prayer purify one’s soul?
Answer.
Prayer is the very important part of man’s life. It is the essential part of religion. In its wider sense prayer is inward communion with God. When we pray, we put up petition for the cleansing and purification of soul. We pray for freeing our soul from the layers of darkness and ignorance. This way prayer purifies our soul.

Question 2.
Gandhiji says “It is better in prayer to have a heart without words, than words without a heart.” Explain.
Answer.
According to Gandhiji, prayer is not mere repetition of words. Even any amount of Ramanama is futile if it fails to make our soul pure. In discourse of prayer we must have a heart without words, then only we may experience the magic of prayer and get inward peace.

Question 3.
What do you understand by Gandhiji’s statement “Rectify one angle of square and the other angles will be automatically right”?
Answer.
In the opinion of Gandhiji prayer is the essence of religion. No man can live without religion and therefore prayer must be the core of our life. We are born to serve our fellow beings. Unless we have true knowledge of our duty, we cannot serve them properly. To perform, our duty well it requires some discipline which comes from prayer. If we take care of ourselves, the things will take care of themselves.

Question 4.
What do you mean by ‘Spiritual discipline’ and how can it be achieved?
Answer.
Spiritual discipline is a necessary prayer which imposes discipline and restraints us from the brute. If there is no discipline in our life, we deviate from our mission. Even the heavenly bodies are controlled by certain laws and the world will not go on for a single moment without it. Spiritual
discipline is essential for a peaceful life.

Activity 2: Vocabulary

A. Match the words in Column ‘A’ with the words of their meanings in column ‘B’ and also use them in your own sentences as given in the
example below:
Example: Discourse = speech
Gandhiji gave a discourse on prayer to the students in Sabarmati Ashrama.

(i) efficacy(a) sleep
(ii) egotism(b) shake
(iii) vital(c) holding back
(iv) slumber(d) practice of talking about one self
(v) stir(e) supreme
(vi) restraining(f) producing the desired result.

Answer: (i)➡(f), (ii)➡(d), (iii)➡(e), (iv)➡(a), (v)➡(b), (vi)➡(c).

Sentences:
(1) The efficacy of prayer can only be felt by a pure heart.
(2) Egotism spoils our power of thinking.
(3) Prayer is vital for our happy life.
(4) Unless we awake from our slumber of negligence, we cannot know the reality of life.
(5) Good thoughts can stir our heart.
(6) The restraining influence of morality helps people lead a happy life.

B. Give one word for each of the following:
(a) One who does not believe in God.
(b) One who thinks that nothing can be known about God.
(c) Something that is of, from or like God.
(d) Practice of belief in magic, which craft etc. without any solid reason.
(e) A horrible dream
Answer.
(a)-Atheist,
(b)-Agnostic,
(c)-Divine,
(d)-Superstition,
(e)-Nightmare.

C. Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of the words given in brackets:
(i) Prayer is either …………. (petition) or in its wider sense, is inward ……..(commune).
(ii) Man without a prayerful heart will be ………… (misery) and will also make the world so.
(iii) The author has emphasized the need of …………. (religion) devotion because it develops self discipline and duty.
(iv) Without the …………. (restraint) influence of laws the world will not run for a single moment.
Answer.
(1)-petition, communion,
(ii)-miserable,
(iii)-religious,
(iv)-restraining.

Activity 3: Grammar

Clauses
In English grammar, clauses and phrases are often mistaken. There are three types of clauses – Noun clause, Adjective clause, and Adverb clause. Similarly, there are three types of phrases – Noun phrase,Adjective phrase and Adverb phrase. While phrases are only groups of words, separately standing for nouns, adjectives or adverbs,clauses have grammatical structures of their own, having subjects and predicates, giving a look of separate sentences, though they are not independent sentences; they are only parts of the sentences. Phrases do not have units like subjects and predicates.

Note below how the words in italics, showing difference between clauses and phrases:
1. We hope to win the match. (noun phrase)
2. We hope that we shall win the match. (noun clause)
3. The tiger with white stripes is from Africa. (adjective phrase)
4. The tiger which has white stripes is from Africa. (adjective clause)
5. They arrived at night. (adverb phrase)
6. They arrived when the night fell. (adverb clause)

Exercise
Complete the following sentences by using phrases and clauses as directed:
1. He believes to…………. the examination. (noun phrase)
2. He believes that ……… the examination. (noun-clause)
3. The dress with …………. is costly. (adj. phrase)
4. The dress which …………. is costly. (adj. clause)
5. She lives near a ………….. (adv. phrase)
6. she lives where a …………. (adv. clause)
7. I know how to ………….. (noun phrase)
8. I know that ………….. (noun clause)
9. The man with the big mustache ………….. (adj. phrase)
10. The man who ………….. (adj. clause)
Answers.
1.-to pass,
2.-he will pass,
3.-a red rose,
4.-has a red rose,
5.-mall,
6.-mall is constructed,
7.-how to swim,
8.-he is well aware of swimming,
9.-is very horrible,
10.-has the big mustache is very horrible.

Activity 4: Speech Activity

Question
Divide your class into groups and ask each group member to deliver a speech on the necessity of Prayer.
Answer.
Do yourself.

Activity 5: Composition

Question.
Write a paragraph in about 150 words regarding the contribution of Mahatma Gandhi in National Freedom Movement.
Answer.
The contribution of Mahatma Gandhi in National Freedom Movement was immense. He was the perfect embodiment of the traditions of India. He was also the heritage of all who walked before him in the freedom struggle of our country. Obviously it was under his guidance the Congress became a mass movement in our country. The country stood against the tyrannical rule of the British. The Indian freedom movement took inspiration from Tilak and became revolutionary under the influences of extremists. But Gandhiji always often supported a peaceful movement as he believed in peace and non-violence. His political acumen led India to the final victory. He taught the Indian people how to keep patience and fight for their injustice. Ahimsha was his powerful weapon which is effective in all critical situations.

He will ever remain as an apostle of peace in the present war-stricken world. The two greatest weapons Truth and Non-violence will never lose their power. He was the real Mahatma.

Additional Questions And Answers

A. Choose the correct alternative:
1. Which of the following topic did Gandhiji talk about?
(a) Books
(b) Villages
(c) Prayer
(d) Handwriting.

2. The atheists do accept—–
(a) moral principle
(b) hard principle
(c) travelling
(d) strict theory

3. Prayer is the ——— part of religion.
(a) weak
(b) strong
(c) good
(d) vital

4. Prayer is more than ——
(a) exercise of words
(b) reading books
(c) simple exercise
(d) walking

5. In sincere prayer we continuously remain in —— with the Divine.
(a) distant
(b) communion
(c) influence
(d) moment

6. The man of prayer will be at — with himself.
(a) war
(b) fight
(c) miserable
(d) peace

7. What value does prayer have?
(a) far
(b) heavy
(c) incalculable
(d) indefinite

8. What happens when one angle is reformed?
(a) The other angle is also reformed.
(b) The other angle gets deformed.
(c) Several angles get formed.
(d) No angle gets deformed.

9. What is a peaceful night full of?
(a) Sweet dreams
(b) Nightmares
(c) Peace
(d) Worry

10. What is essential for the service of fellow beings?
(a) Strict discipline
(b) Stern discipline
(c) Light discipline
(d) Prayer
Answer.
1.-(c), 2.-(a), 3.-(d), 4.-(a), 5.-(b), 6.-(d), 7.-(c), 8.-(a), 9.-(c), 10.-(d).

B. Say whether the following statements are True or False:
1. The author was unhappy to speak on prayer. False
2. Some people accept their relationship with God due to superstition. True
3. The petition prayer aims at inward peace. True
4. We are infallible mortals. False
5. We are born in this world to oppress the fellow men. False
6. A man without a prayerful heart is always miserable. True
7. The man is generally professed to believe in the power of prayer. True
8. The author invokes the heart of man for the service of mankind. true
9. Nightmares are sweet dreams. false
10. Some restraints are essential for our life. true

C. Answer the following questions in about 30-40 words each:

Question 1.
Why is prayer vital for man?
Answer.
Prayer is the very soul and essence of religion. No man can live without religion and therefore prayer is the core of man’s life. It is vital for every man.

Question 2.
What does the egotist think about religion?
Answer.
The egotists live by the power of their reasons. They never accept things easily. They think that they have nothing to do with religions.

Question 3.
In the matter of religion what can be said about the agnostic or atheist?
Answer.
The agnostic or atheist do give preference to some moral principles. Their relationship with the Divine is only for their personal reason or instinct

Question 4.
What is the merit of petition prayer?
Answer.
The petition prayer is a sincere prayer. It aims to achieve inward peace. Here the petition is made for the cleansing and purification from darkness and ignorance which cover our soul.

Question 5.
What mistakes do the erring mortals make in their prayer?
Answer.
The erring mortals find it difficult to retire within themselves for inward communion even for a single second. They find it impossible to remain constantly in communion with the God.

Question 6.
How can we better serve our fellow men?
Answer.
We can better secure our fellow man by offering our prayers to the Divine. We should know that prayers helps a man to be in peace with himself and the world around. A man who does not have the sheet anchor of prayer will be a victim to the power of darkness. He will not be able to achieve his mission to serve our fellow men.

Question 7.
What does a man without a prayer do to the world?
Answer.
A man without prayerful heart is a miserable man who will also make the world miserable. He will be victim to the power of darkness.

Question 8.
Why is some sort of stern discipline needed for prayer?
Answer.
People are in search of truth but they do not give due importance to prayer. It is a matter of serious concern for them. Discipline in prayer saves them from becoming negligent in their duty. With discipline in prayers they are able to serve the mankind properly, which is their mission of life.

Question 9.
How should we begin and end our day?
Answer.
According to Gandhiji, we should begin and end our day with prayers. We should endeavor to make our prayer soulful so that it may remain with us the whole day. Besides at night it will keep us away from nightmares. The night will be peaceful.

Question 10.
What is the restraining influence of laws?
Answer.
The restraining influence of laws regulates the things to remain in order. Even the sun, moon and stars obey certain laws to control the system of the universe. In the absence of restraint mission to serve our fellow men will not be achieved ever.

D. Answer the following questions in about 60 words each:

Question 1.
Why is prayer necessary for man?
Answer.
Prayer is the soul of religion. Religion is the central part of man’s life and therefore a man cannot live without prayer. A prayer with heart and without word keeps the man at peace. It helps us to remain in constant touch with the Divine. It gives us wisdom and strength to achieve our mission to serve fellow men. Prayer is a discipline and restraint that separate us from the brute.

Question 2.
How is prayer inward communion with the Divine?
Answer.
Prayer in its wider sense is inward communion with the Divine. A petition heartful prayer helps in cleansing and purification of our soul and free it from the layer of ignorance and darkness that has covered it. To experience the presence of Divine in our heart, we must pray regularly.

Question 3.
Why should we pray with a heart without words?
Answer.
We must know that prayer is not mere repetition of words. It is not the repetition of any formula also. The mere repetition of the name of Divine fails to stir our soul. We cannot rely upon such prayers. Gandhiji thinks that we must pray with a heart without words. In the absence of sincere and meaningful prayer we fail to experience the magic of it. We cannot have inward peace of mind and soul without a heart in prayer

Question 4.
How is perpetual communion with the Divine possible?
Answer.
Men are erring mortals. They may be found praying every moment of life. But they are unable to forget their personal identification for inward communion with the Divine for a single moment. In the absence of such detachment from the world or personal life, it is impossible for the men to remain in perpetual communion with the Divine. In prayer we should make serious efforts to cast off our personal identity.

Question 5.
How has prayer incalculable value?
Answer.
Prayer holds its incalculable effect on our life even after death. Men are always engaged in finding truth and often believe in the efficacy of prayer but never try to get at its root. They do not give as much value to prayer as it holds for them. Nobody realizes how negligent they are in this matter. Prayer requires some stern discipline to save us from the worst. We can only do this by taking every care towards prayer.

Question 6.
How can we save ourselves from horrible dreams?
Answer.
Prayer has immense value in our life. We should start our days with prayer and end it with a prayer. When our days start with a soulful prayer it remains with us all day along. We feel peace till the evening visits. The evening prayer gives us a peaceful night, which is always free from dreams and nightmares. A soulful prayer puts us in communion with the Divine. Besides, when we pray, we should not worry about the forms of prayer. Prayers are meant for the purification of soul.

Questions For Practice

1. What is a true prayer?

2. What is the aim of petition prayer?

3. How can we remain in perpetual communion with the Divine?

4. Why is there an external struggle in man’s heart?

5. Why do we need to remain awaken at heart?

6. “Every thing in the universe obey certain laws.” Explain and give reason for your answer.

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