MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Chapter 5 Solutions Dilemma of the Scientist

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 5 Dilemma of the Scientist (J. Bronowski) with pdf.

MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 5 Dilemma of the Scientist (J. Bronowski)

The dilemma of the Scientist Textual Exercises

Word Power

Question 1.
Refer to a dictionary and find out the meaning of the words given below and use them in sentences of your own:
sympathy, practical, evade, miserable, dictate, dignity, dissent, impose, penetrate, achievement.
Answer:

  • Sympathy – pity towards a suffers – I expressed my sympathy in
    his distress.
  • Practical – suitable for use – We should be practical at every step.
  • Evade – avoid by trick)’ – The thief evaded the police.
  • Miserable – full of misery – Don’t look so miserable.
  • Dictate – say words aloud to be written or recorded – the teacher dictated the students.
  • Dignity – full of honour – Everyone likes to lead a life of dignity.
  • Dissent – disagree – Those who dissented with the organization formed another party.
  • Impose – introduces a new rule, law, tax, etc. to order that a rule be used – New tax is imposed on fuel.
  • Penetrate – make a way into or through – The Sun’s rays penetrated through the leaves to reach the earth.
  • Achievement – accomplishment – Amit’s parents are proud of his wonderful achievement.

Question 2.
For each of the words given below, find a word from the text that has the opposite meaning:
admirable, aggressor, construction, enemies, happiness, notice, overt, peace, permissible, repair
Answer:

  • admirable — miserable
  • aggressor — pacifist
  • construction — destruction
  • enemies — allies
  • happiness — distress
  • notice — ignore
  • overt — invert
  • peace — war
  • permissible — formidable
  • repair — damage.

Question 3. Notice the use of the adjective ‘heavy’ in the phrase heavy heart’.

It is not the same as that in ‘heavy box’ or in ‘heavy metal’ The adjective changes the literal meaning so that the phrase means ‘sad’.

(a) Explain the use of adjectives in the following phrases:
quizzical eye, single-handed, first baud, heavy-handed, soft-spoken.
(b) Write five such phrases and use them in sentences.
Answer:

  • quizzical eye — quizzical—enquiring
  • single handed— single—alone
  • first hand —first — experience something yourself
  • heavy handed — heavy:not showing a sympathetic understanding of the feelings of other people.
  • soft-spoken — soft — having a gentle and quiet voice.

Dilemma of the Scientist Grammar

I. Look at the following sentences from the text:

(a) The atomic scientists who had made the bomb in America were therefore shocked and distressed to hear that it was still intended to use it, against the Japanese.

(b) I am, therefore, out of sympathy with the cry that the scientist ought not to discover formidable sources of power, or at least should not disclose them to his frail and destructive fellowmen. Clauses with ‘therefore’ have been used in these sentences. These are called clauses of reason, as they denote reasons for their actions mentioned in the main clause. Now join the following pairs of sentences into complex sentences by using the conjunction ‘therefore’. One is done as an example.
Example: There was no petrol in the tank.
The car stopped during the journey.
There was no petrol in the tank, therefore, the car stopped during the journey.

1. The attendance in the class is poor.
It is raining.

2. Sweta is down with fever.
She has not come to school.

3. The captain has broken his finger while practicing.
He is not playing today.

4. Her father died and she had to take a job.
She could not complete her studies.

5. Mother is unwell today.
Sumer is cooking food in the kitchen.

6. Someone has broken the toy.
The child is crying.

7. She passed the examination.
She is very happy.

8. The teacher is on leave.
The children are making a lot of noise.

9. I am tired.
I want to have some rest.

10. The dog is hungry.
It is barking.
Answer:

  1. It is raining therefore the attendance in the class is poor.
  2. Sweta is down with fever therefore she has not come to school.
  3. The captain has broken his finger while practicing therefore he is not playing today.
  4. Her father died and she had to take a job therefore she could not complete her studies.
  5. Mother is unwell today therefore Sumer in cooking food in the kitchen.
  6. Someone has broken the toy therefore the child is crying.
  7. She passed the examination therefore she is very happy.
  8. The teacher is on leave therefore the children are making a lot of noise.
  9. lam tried therefore I want to have some rest.
  10.  The dog is hungry therefore it is barking.

Comprehension

(A) Briefly explain the following statements from the text:

1. “The scale of the damage at Nagasaki drained the blood from my heart then, and does so now when I speak of it.” ,
2. “Wars are neither made nor unmade by weapons, it is the other way about, the weapons grow out of the wars.”
3. “We do not change the world by what we wish but how we act.”
4. “The scientist in this work is the servant of the nation, and he must hotly dictate to it, even about his own discoveries.”
5. “I believe that nations can choose wisely, and democracy can prove its powers if scientists are willing to become teachers to them.”
Answer:

  1. The writer is extremely shocked to see the damage at Nagasaki. It is still haunting and tells the tale of its pain and suffering.
  2. The writer means to say that wars are not the result of weapons. There are, infact, the choice of the human being which put the nations at war. The wars create necessity of weapons.
  3. The writer tries to co-relate our responsibility in the making of the world. Merely wishes can’t change the world. We need to act for it.
  4. Here, the helplessness of the scientists have been highlighted Scientists are employed or hired to work for the nation by the government or other agencies. They have no right to dictate the government of their employees anything proper. They can’t even explain their own discoveries with all detail.
  5. Highlighting the intelligence and capability of the scientists the writer says that everything can be set properly, and democracy can prove to be real if scientists become teachers.

MP Board Solutions

(B) Answer the following questions in brief (30 – 40 words)

Question 1.
What forced the Applied scientists to invent an atomic bomb?
Answer:
During World War II, it was believed that Germans were working to make hydrogen bombs. Scientists over the continent of England and America were aware of the devastating power of such bombs. So the allied scientists were forced to invent an atomic bomb to save their position otherwise the monopoly of Germans in this bomb would have made Germans a superpower of the world.

Question 2.
Why, according to the writer, did the Nazis lose the race to invent the atomic bomb?
Answer:
As the writer thinks the Nazis lost the race to invent the atomic bomb because they believed that the fast chain reaction of an atomic bomb was impossible. They had made fundamental science a poor eye and the questioning mind the urge to find the facts for oneself. Moreover, there were not enough unconventional ideas in the German atomic projects.

Question 3.
How did the Allied scientists react to the information that the atomic bomb they had invented to defeat Germany was still intended to be used?
Answer:
The Allied scientists were shocked and depressed when they learned that the atomic bomb they had made to defeat Germany was a skill intended to be used. They wrote a round-robin to President Truman pleading against the decision. They tried to convince him that it was not simply a bigger bomb. It should be demonstrated to the world not on men and women but in a desert places.

Question 4.
Why is the writer against the people who say that scientists should not invent or discover sources of fearsome power?
Answer:
The writer thinks that if the scientists are employed they would do their work. It is the choice of the community or the government to decide whether they want peace or war. The scientists are not to be blamed for making sources of fearsome power because they do only what they are asked for.

Question 5.
What freedom does the writer demand from society for the scientist?
Answer:
The writer demands the scientists the freedom to give their reason and to speak their minds. The community should not impose its own view on them. Society should not dictate them. A scientist should be free to follow his own conscience as any citizen should be free in peace or in war.

Question 6.
Trace the history of the invention of the atomic bomb and write in about 150 words.
Answer:
It was a German scientist, named onto Habur, w ho was successful in making the atom bomb by splitting the atom. He got the Nobel Prize for 1944 – 45. It was America which first tested the atom bomb in the deserts of Mexico. Later on. to bring the Second World War to an end, America dropped two atom bombs on Japan. The first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6. 1945. After three days, on August 9, 1945, the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. The world was horrified. Both the cities of Japan were made deserted within seconds. Nothing was left there. America came out as the biggest and the mightiest country in the world.

Slowly and steadily a number of countries began to make the atom bomb with the break up of the former Soviet Union the nuclear race between the USA and the Russian states has ended. But China has also succeeded in making the atomic bomb. India has also successfully conducted underground nuclear explosions, though she is committed to using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes only. Pakistan has also conducted an underground nuclear” explosion. Thus, we see that several nations have been involved in this nuclear race.

Dilemma of the Scientist Summary in English

‘The Dilemma of the Scientist’ is a science fiction that explains the making of an atom bomb. The writer while narrating the super devastating weapon, says that it always haunted the scientists after its result in Nagasaki. Nagasaki was one of the victims who was devastated during the World War. Even the scientists think themselves how had they blundered. The writer puts this question before history which had witnessed the making of the atomic bombs; The fission of Uranium was discovered by the two German scientists just a year before the War. Within a few months, it was ready.

They were not sure whether it was the atomic bomb. But one thing was sure that if the fission of Uranium could be used explosively it might in theory make an explosion a million times larger than the other. It was believed that the monopoly of such an atomic bomb would make Hitler. The Master of Europe and the world and slavey to the whole world. The Scientists were well aware of its devastating power. They alerted Albert Einstein who was a pacifist all his life. He never thought anything from one side. He thought it better to leave the nations, to use their conscience in making use of it. Before Hitler’s invasion of Poland Einstein alerted President Roosevelt about his apprehension of the use of the atomic bomb by the Germans.

Scientists in England, Canada, and America also began making the atomic bomb. They did it thinking it to be their duty to use their skill in the interest of the nation. They were in the race against Germany. But the writer thinks that what the scientists did was pitiful. They created a series of devastation. However, the Germans failed but the allies succeeded in testing the first atomic bomb in July 1945. In the meantime, Germany was defeated and Hitler was dead.

The scientists made a plea to President Truman against the decision the use the bomb. They were of the view that the demonstration of the bomb should be tested in deserted places but not on human habitation. However, it was ignored and Hiroshima and Nagasaki were made deserted. Scientists believed that the hydrogen bomb would change the scenario of the world. The nations would come to their senses about war. But the writer thinks, the wars are not made unmade through weapons. The evil roots are the wars themselves.

MP Board Solutions

There is no logical sense in saying that such weapons should have not been discovered. Actually, in a democracy, we people are responsible for what happens. We do not change the world, by what we wish but by how we act. There is no escape from the choice which the community makes between a bomb or no bomb, between planning a war or peace. Scientists have been employed for doing reasonably. They are the hangmen who have no choice whether to kill or no. It is none of their business to make a decision. They can’t dictate any policy. The community is responsible for such consequences.

Scientists should also be allowed to think like a free men. He should have the right to think freely by his own conscience. If he detests war or thinks his research is against humanity, he should be allowed to choose another job. Above all the dissenting scientists should be allowed to put their reasons and to express their views. They also bear the responsibility in the making of the society. It is the world in which scientists penetrate every sphere of life. In a democracy, every man has the ability to form a judgment on every issue. Scientists, if willingly teach the community, can change the whole scenario. They can give a new meaning to our lives.

In fact, they know the method to teach by which one can assure promises against achievement.
But the irony is that the man who has worked on the issue of life and death guided a missile or hydrogen bomb is seldom free to speak as he would like. It is a great loss on the part of the whole community. There is no conforming or totalitarian science. The dilemma persists whether there would ever be an educated democracy.

Dilemma of the Scientist Comprehension

Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions that follow:

1. Nearly nine years ago, on a warm autumn evening in 1945, I was driving over the mountains of southern Japan to the city of Nagasaki. The scale of the damage at Nagasaki drained the blood from my heart then and does so now when I speak of it. For three miles my road lay through a desert which man had made in a second. Now, nine years later, the hydrogen bomb is ready to dwarf this scale and to turn each mile of destruction into ten miles. And citizens and scientists stare at one another and ask: ‘how did we blunder into this nightmare?

Questions:
(i) Where was the narrator driving over?
(ii) What did he see? What was its effect on his mind?
(iii) What difference did he find in his two visits to this place?
(iv) Explain the meaning of the expression, ‘how did we blunder into this nightmare’?

Answers:
(i) The narrator was driving over the mountains of southern Japan to the city of Nagasaki.
(ii) He saw the damages at Nagasaki which was deserted in a few seconds by the atomic bomb during the World War.
(iii) There was no change in the deserted look of Nagasaki.
(iv) The writer means to say that the citizens and scientists might feed amazed at what they had done by creating the atomic bomb. They would ask themselves what a nightmarish blunder they had done.

MP Board Solutions

2. Scientists on the continent, in England and America, asked themselves whether the secret weapon on which the Germans were said to be working was an atomic bomb. If the fission of uranium could be used explosively (and this already seemed possible in 1939) it might in theory make an explosion a million times larger than hitherto. The monopoly of such an atomic bomb would give Hitler instant victory, and make him master of Europe and the world. The scientists knew the scale of what they feared very well; they feared first desolation and then slavery.

Questions:
(i) What was the curiosity of the scientists on the continent in England and America?
(ii) What did they fear?
(iii) What result did they apprehend of the use of new discovery?
(iv) What is the meaning of monopoly?

Answers:
(i) The scientists in the continent in England and America were curious about whether the secret weapon on which the Germans were working was an atomic bomb.
(ii) They feared the large mass destruction if the bomb was used explosively.
(iii) They apprehended that the new discovery would make Hitler
master of Europe and the world and Germany would be the Superpower.
(iv) Monopoly-sole authority, control.

3. In short the Germans failed; it was the allies who tested the first atomic bomb in July of 1945. By this time Germany was defeated and Hitler was dead. The atomic scientists who had made the bomb in America were therefore shocked and distressed to hear that it was still intended to use, against the Japanese. They wrote a round-robin to President Truman in which they pleaded against this decision. This is not simply a bigger bomb, they said; it changes every scale of war and of all power and it should be demonstrated to the world, not on men and women, but in some desert place. However, the protest of the scientists was ignored; and Hiroshima and Nagasaki were made desert places.

Questions:
(i) When was the first atomic bomb tested and by whom?
(ii) What had happened to Hitler by that time?
(iii) Why were the atomic scientists shocked?
(iv) What did the scientists do to convince the government.
(v) What was their plea?

Answers:
(i) The first atomic bomb was tested in July 1945 by the allies.
(ii) Hitler was dead by that time.
(iii) The atomic scientists were shocked because America was still intended to use the atomic bomb against Japan.
(iv) The scientists wrote a round-robin to President Trump to convince the government.
(v) Their plea was that as it was not simply a bigger bomb, it should not be demonstrated on men and women but in some desert place.

4. The scientist in society has no right to dictate to society, and this is the heart of the matter. In return, society must not dictate his life to him. He must be free to follow his conscience, as any citizen should be free, in peace or in war. Like every man and woman, the scientist has a duty to himself, which demands that his work shall not only be useful but shall conform to his sense of human fulfillment and dignity. If this prompts him to reject research for war, or atomic physics, or science itself, he must be free and able to find other work.

Questions:
(i) What is the real status of the scientists in society?
(ii) What does the writer want for the scientist?
(iii) What is the duty of a scientist?
(iv) Find a word from the passage similar in meaning to ‘order’.

Answers:
(i) The real status of the scientists in society is that he has no right to dictate to society.
(ii) The writer wants the scientist’s freedom to follow his own consequence like any citizen in peace or in war.
(iii) The scientist has a duty to himself like every man and woman His duty demands that his work shall not be useful but shall conform to his sense of human fulfillment and dignity.
(iv) ‘dictate.

MP Board Solutions

5. Above all, the dissenting scientist must be free to give his reasons and to speak his mind. This is his true responsibility in the blundering, warring world: not to impose his will on his fellows, but to help them to find their own wills. We live in a time when science penetrates every public issue, from a city plan to the fall in the death rate, from a fuel crisis to cigarette smoking or margarine. The faith of our democracy is that, at the bottom, every man has the ability to form a judgment on every issue: and therefore the life of democracy hangs by his willingness to educate his judgment.

Questions:
(i) What sort of freedom should scientists be given?
(ii) What is the responsibility of a scientist?
(iii) What is the role of science in our life today?
(iv) What is the faith of democracy?
(v) Find a word from the above passage which is opposite to ‘dictatorship’.

Answers:
(i) The scientist should be given the freedom to dictate his reasons and to
speak his mind.
(ii) The responsibility of a scientist is not to impose his will on his fellows but to help them to find their own wills.
(iii) Science penetrates every public issue, from a city plan to the fall in the death rate, from a Field crisis to cigarette smoking or magazine.
(iv) The faith of democracy is that at the bottom every man has the ability to form a judgment on every issue.
(v) ‘democracy’.

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