MP Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening and Establishment of Political Organizations in India

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th Social Science Book Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening and Establishment of Political Organizations in India Solution with Pdf file.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening and Establishment of Political Organizations in India

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Additional Important Questions

Objective Type Questions:

Question 1. Multiple Choice Questions:
(Choose the correct answer from the following)

Question (a)
Lord Curzon divided Bengal in …………………..
(a) 1902
(b) 1903
(c) 1904
(d) 1905.
Answer:
(d) 1905.

Question (b)
The Ganesh Festival was organised by Tilak in:
(a) Bengal
(b) Maharashtra
(c) Punjab
(d) Tamilnadu.
Answer:
(b) Maharashtra

Question (c)
During the establishment of Indian National Congress the Vicerory of India was:
(a) Lord Curzon
(b) Lord Canning
(c) Lord Durfin
(d) Lord Vilington.
Answer:
(c) Lord Durfin

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Question (d)
The second convention of Indian Association was told in:
(a) 1883
(b) 1884
(c) 1885
(d) 1886.
Answer:
(c) 1885

Question 2. Fill in the blanks:

  1. After the event of the …………………….. company rule in India ended.
  2. ‘Anand Math’ was written by ……………………
  3. Delhi – Durbar was organised in the honour of ……………………..
  4. Swami Dayanand was the founder of Arya Samaj in 1875 at …………………….

Answer:

  1. 1857
  2. Bankim Chandra
  3. George V
  4. Bombay.

Question 3. True and False type questions:

  1. Ramkrishna Mission was established by Ramkrishna Paramhansa.
  2. A.O. Hume was a social reformer.
  3. The period between 1885 to 1905 is known as liberal period.
  4. Divide and rule was the policy of moderates.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. False
  3. True
  4. False.

Question 4. Match the columns:

  1. Arya Samaj (a) 1828
  2. Brahma Samaj (b) 1867
  3. Ramkrishna Mission (c) 1875
  4. Prathana Samaj (d) 1873
  5. Satya Shodhak Samaj (e) 1879

Answer:

  1. (c)
  2. (a)
  3. (e)
  4. (b)
  5. (d)

Answer in One – Two Words or One Sentence

Question 1.
Name the three social evils prevelent in the Muslim society?
Answer:
Purdah system, polygamy, the process of easy divorce and child marriage.

Question 2.
Who was the founder of Brahma Samaj?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Rai in 1928 founded Brahmo Samaj.

Question 3.
Who founded Arya Samaj?
Answer:
Arya Samaj was founded by Dayanand Saraswati in the year 1875.

Question 4.
Who founded Ramkrishna Mission?
Answer:
Swami Vivekanand in 1879.

Question 5.
Who founded Prarthana Samaj?
Answer:
Atmaram Pandurang in 1867.

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Question 6.
When was Indian National Congress established?
Answer:
On 28th December 1885.

Question 7.
Who were the main members of East India Association?
Answer:
Anand Mohan Bose and Surendra Nath Benarjee were the main members of East India Association.

Question 8.
Which period is known as liberal period in the history of freedom movement in India?
Answer:
Between 1885 and 1905.

Question 9.
When was first time Ganesh Utsav organized in the public domain?
Answer:
In 1893.

Question 10.
Who led the aggressive movement in Punjab?
Answer:
Lala Lajpat Rai.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who were known as Lal, Bal and Pal?
Answer:
Bal Gangdhar Tilak of Maharashtra, Bipin Chandra Pal of Bengal and Lala Lajpat Rai of Punjab were known as Lal, Bal and Pal.

Question 2.
Which new social class had emerged in India during the British rule?
Answer:
The middle class, consisting many neolandlords, traders, intelligents and professional class, intelligents became the leading group for demanding modernisation.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening and Establishment of Political Organizations in India

MP Board 10th Social Science Book Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening Establishment of Political Organizations in India

Question 3.
What was the aim of Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan in establishing the Scientific Society?
Answer:
Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan (1817 – 1899) founded the Scientific Society in 1862. Its main aim was to translate, and publish scientific work in urdu so to familiarise the people with modern science.

Question 4.
Who did the Indian National Congrees wish to speak for?
Answer:
The Indian National Congress wished “to speak for the good of all countrymen. It will speak not only for one class or community of India, but of all the different communities of India.

Question 5.
What was the contribution of Bal – Pal – Lal in the development of extremism in India?
Answer:
Lokmanya Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal played an important part in the development of extremism in India. These leaders instilled the feelings of national pride, glory and rich heritage in the Indian people. They prepared the people to fight against injustice, exploitation and foreign imperialism with all their might.

Question 6.
Why is Raja Rammohan Roy called the Father of Modern India?
Answer:
Raja Rammohan Roy took the lead in the direction of social and religious reforms. The condemned social evils like sati, child – marriage, polygamy, etc., and was devoted to the spread of modern knowledge and modernisation of Indian society.

Question 7.
Write any two advantages that the beginning of the press had on Indian society?
Answer:

  1. The press made the people of India aware of the need for reforming their religious and social evils.
  2. If spread knowledge and revolutionary ideas among the people.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the effects of the reform movements of the 19th century on the Indian society?
Answer:
The effects of the reform movements of the 19th century Indian society can be stated as under:

  1. Significant advances were made in the field of emancipation of women. Sati was banned; infanticide was outlawed; education for women was propagated; widow – remarriage was allowed.
  2. The reform movements helped in awakening of the people to the need of change.
  3. As most of the social evils had became associated with religious practices, these social reform movements were inevitably religious in nature. They reformed both the religion and society,
  4. These reform movements contributed a great deal to the birth of Indian nationalism.

Question 2.
What were the main objectives stated in the first convention of Indian National Congress?
Answer:
The first President of Congress, Vyomesh Chandra Benarjee stated the objectives of the Congress in its first convention in 1885. These were:

1. To promote the friendship and mutual intimacy among people, who work enthusiastically for the country.

2. To eradicate the differences of cast, religion and regions and remove the prejudices through friendship and direct contact, to develop unity and nationalistic feelings, which were developed during the administrative regime of Lord Rippon.

3. To document the contemporary and burning problems of India, with the help of educated and matured individuals through a careful and detailed discussion.

4. To chart a programme of political activities and public good for next 12 months.

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Question 3.
What were the differences between the moderates and the extremists?
Answer:
Moderates:

  1. The moderates believed in the peaceful and constitutional measures for the realization of their aims and objectives.
  2. They favoured to carry out the economic reforms by remaining under the rule of Britishers.
  3. The moderates did not hate the British Rule. They did not find anything wrong in the western culture and their literature.
  4. Moderates were never persecuted by the British Government. Some of the moderates are: Dadabhai Naoroji

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening and Establishment of Political Organizations in India

Extremists:

  1. Extremists were the militant nationalists. They were against the petitions and the peaceful methods. They advocated and practiced the use of force and revolutionary methods to attain their goals.
  2. Extremist aimed at achieving complete sivaraj. They wanted to have their own government.
  3. The extremists hated the British rule.
  4. Extremists like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai etc. were sent to jail many times.

Question 4.
What was Swami Vivekananda’s mission in life?
Answer:
His mission was the revival of the best traditions of the Hindu religion, including the vedas. Vedanta, according to him, was the religion of all and not of the Hindus alone. To establish this fact, he attended the Parliament of Religious at Chicago (USA).

His forceful speech at the Parliament made him a world figure. His great desire was to improve all aspects of national life, particularly the depressed economic conditions of the masses and the low status of women. He wanted the youth to take pride in their motherland.

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Question 5.
How were the cottage industries affected by British policy of economic explantions?
Answer:
With the establishment of British empire and the industrial revolution in England, Indian cottage industries suffered a blow. The goods exported from India had a heavy tax leaved on them in foreign market, whereas the imparted goods from England were made tax free, to sell in the Indian market.

This made the money to flow out of India and established the economy. India become consumer country of foreign goods due to which india became the narket of raw material for British industries.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Enumerate the measures taken by reform movements to improve the conditions of the women?
Answer:
Measures taken by reform movements to improve the women conditions:
Many reform movements were started in 19th century to improve the condition of women in the society. Raja Rammohan Rai, Ishwar Chandra were the most famous.

1. Abolition of sati practices:
Raja Rammohan Rai, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, and Swami Dayanand Saraswati persuaded the case too much and were able to make law against Sati system by Lord William Bentick.

2. Re – marriage of widow:
Widows were considered as sin, slave and unfortunate black spot in Indian society. They were not allowed for remarriage. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and other reformers tried their level best to solve this problem. At last they were able to convince many people.

3. Opposition of purdah system:
Modem social reformers were against purdah system as hindered it the development of woman in the society. They moved for abolition of purdah system, succeeded in their efforts.

4. Stressed on woman education:
Modern reformers stressed on her education. They opened many schools and colleges, for women education. Raja Rammohan Rai and Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Swami Dayanand Saraswati and Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan had played commendable roles in women education. Thus, in the 2nd half of 19th century the condition of woman was better than before.

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Question 2.
Discuss the political organization’s responsibility for making the base of Indian National Congress?
Answer:
By the end 6f 19th century, the peaceful political movements began in India. Educated Indians were not unaware of the economic and political subjugation, this class started organized political activities. The objective of these organized movements was to establish representative organisation, freedom of expression and thinking and abolition of economic exploitation.

These activities gradually converted in the demands for freedom. These activities started from Bengal, Mumbai, Madras, where British Raj had first established. After the srtruggle of 1857, the national awakening intensified and the main political organizations which formed were Poona Sarvajanik Sabha (1870), Indian League (1875), East India Association (1876), Madras Mahajan Sabha (1884) and Bombay Presidency
Association.(1885).

These organizations not only advocated their demands about local issues but also vehemently advocated national demands there was no organization of national level established since then. To fulfill the requirement of a national level organization, Surendra Nath Benarjee called a national of Indian Association in Kolkata in 1883. About 200 representatives participated in the convention.

Again there was a second convention in 1885 in Kolkata this was a major step in the direction of forming a national organization in India. The objective of all these organizations is to provide a common platform to all the organizations and to address the problems and issues of common good.

Although the British Government ignored the demands put up by the political organizations, Indian newspapers gave sound publicity to the demands. The main members of East India Association were Anand Mohan Bose and Surendranath Benarjee. By 1885 there were 60 branches of the association, all over the country.

Question 3.
Describe the causes of emergence of aggressive nationalism in India?
Answer:
Following are the causes of emergence of aggressive nationalism:

1. Dissatisfaction towards the working of moderates:
The aggressive leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai, Vipin Chandra Pal, Arvind Ghosh and others realised that Indians would never get the political right through memorandums and appeals. Aggressive leaders had no trust in so called British justice and philanthropy. They wanted to launch a powerful mass movements against British rule. Lokmanya Tilak said “Indians will not get the freedom on a silver platter”.

2. Failure of legitimate movements:
Having received a lot of requests and appeals from moderates, British finally in 1892 accepted the Bhartiya Parishad Adhiniyam, but, it did’not provide any valid rights to Indians. This made all the hopes of getting political rights through legitimate means fade.

3. The reactionary policy of British Rule:
The main reason of emergence of aggressive nationalism was the reactionary policy of British Government, whatever promises Indians were given through the (Bharat Shasan Adhiniyam) and queen Victoria’s announcement in 1858, they proved to be only verbal force.

They were never followed in its true spirit. The policy of exploitation and discrimination continued as before. During the period of narrow – minded rule in Britain, the command of Indian rule was also given to the reactionary viceroys in. India
the attitude of British administration was completely racially prejudiced and inhuman towards Indians. Lord Lytton and Lord Curzon had hurt the Indian feelings about their race.

4. Economic policy of British Government:
Indian agriculture and industries suffered a major set – back due to the economic exploitation policy of British Government. Their economic policy patronized the interests of capitalists. The import duty was removed from the British goods which caused a heavy loss to Indian cottage industries.

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Question 4.
Why Raja Rammohan Rai has been called the fore – runner of the Indian Renaissance?
Answer:
Raja Rammohan Rai was one of the greatest son of this great country that India can be proud of. He greatly loved his people and country, and throughout his life worked hard for the social, religious, intellectual and political upliftment of the country.

Raja Rammohan Rai played an important role in the social and cultural awakening of the country. He is rightly called the “Father of Modern India”. His contributions can be summarised as follows :

1. Raja Rammohan Rai vigorously attacked the caste system and declared it as inhuman.

2. He raised his voice against the in human Practice of Sati. He cited the authority of the sacred books and showed that the Hindu religion was opposed to this practice.

3. He was a great champion of women’s rights. He stood for equal rights for women and make a demand for granting the right of property and inheritance to them for raising their social status. He also advocated the right of widows to remarriage.

4. He tried to persuade the government to abolish the child- marriage.

5. He paid stress on the spread of western education and sciences in order to eradicate useless traditional and blind faiths.

6. He was an internationalist who supported the cause of freedom everywhere.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Text Book Exercise

Objective Type Questions

Question 1. Multiple Choice Questions:
(Choose the correct answer from the following)

Question (a)
The president of Congress during in its first convention was:
(a) Dada Bhai Naoroji
(b) V.C. Benarjee
(c) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(d) Firoj Shah Mehta.
Answer:
(b) V.C. Benarjee

Question (b)
Who introduced English Education in India?
(a) Rant Krishna Gopal
(b) Maxmullar
(c) Macaulay
(d) Bhartendu Harish Chandra.
Answer:
(b) Maxmullar

Social Science Book Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening Establishment of Political Organizations in India

Question (c)
Through which Newspaper did Lala Lajpat Rai inspired the people of India to struggle?
(a) Kesari
(b) Samvad Kaumudi
(c) Hindustan
(d) Kayasth Samachar.
Answer:
(d) Kayasth Samachar.

Question (d)
Who among the following was not a moderate thinker?
(a) Dada Bhai Naoroji
(b) Arvind Ghosh
(c) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(d) Firoj Shah Mehta.
Answer:
(b) Arvind Ghosh

Question (v)
With whom do this proclamation associated with “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it?”
(a) Vipin Chandra Pal
(b) Lala Lajpat Rai
(c) Arvind Ghosh
(d) Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
Answer:
(d) Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

Question 2. Fill in the blanks:

  1. The reactionary policy of Viceroy ………………….. was full of racist thinking.
  2. The founder of Congress is considered to be …………………..
  3. Vande Mataram was written by ………………………
  4. In 1883 the national convention of Indian association was called in ……………………….

Answer:

  1. Lord Litten
  2. A.O. Hume
  3. Barikim Chandra Chatterji
  4. 1883.

Question 3. Match the column:

  1. Dr. Hari Singh Gaur (a) Arya Samaj
  2. Raja Ram Mohan Rai (b) Founder of Sagar University
  3. Jyotiba Phule (c) Ram krishna Mission
  4. Swami Dayanand Saraswati (d) Satya Shodhak Samaj
  5. Swami Vivekanand (e) Tatva Bodhini Sabha
  6. Devendra Nath Thakur (f) Brahma Samaj.

Answer:

  1. (b)
  2. (f)
  3. (d)
  4. (a)
  5. (c)
  6. (e).
MP Board Class 10th Social Science Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What were the measures adopted by Congress to address the grievances and complaints in the initial period?
Answer:
Appeals, Memorandum, Delegation, Dharna and Strike.

Question 2.
Name the leaders of aggressive nationalism?
Answer:
Arvind Ghosh, Vipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai Bal Gangadhar Tilk (Lai Bal Pal).

Question 3.
Explain, what is Boycott?
Answer:
Boycott means to boycott the foreign goods, the Government jobs institutions and awards.

10th Social Science Book Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening Establishment of Political Organizations in India

Question 4.
What was the policy adopted by Lord Curzon for Governance?
Answer:
Divide and Rule policy was followed by Lord Curzon in 1905 to divide Bengal in two parts.

Question 5.
What were objectives in the mind of Humes while establishing Indian National Congress?
Answer:
A.O. Hume founded the Indian National Congress as a protective shield for British Government providing a platform to register the demand of leader through appeal, memorandum are the objectives of Hume.

Question 6.
How many representatives participated in the first convention of Indian National Congress?
Answer:
There were 72 representatives in the first convention of Indian National Congress.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What was the role of western thinking and education in the development of national consciousness?
Or
Describe the role of western thinking and education in the development of national awakening in India? (MP Board 2009)
Answer:
Impact of western culture, education and thinkers:
With the intention or uprooting nationalistic feeling from the Indian hearts, Lord Macaulay introduced western education in India. His intention in spreading western education in English was to develop a class of people who would work in the interest of British Government.

But, on the contrary the spread of English education inspired Indians to free themselves from the clutches of foreign rule. With the knowledge of English language, Indians became acquainted with the western literature, thinking and philosophy and administration.

Question 2.
Name the newspapers which played an important role in the development of national awakening?
Answer:
The analytical review of British rule was being printed in Indian newspapers. Among Indian newspapers, there were “Samvad Kaumudi”, “Amrit Bazar Patrika”, “Bambai Samachar”, Kesari”, “Maratha”, “Hindu”, “Patriot”, “Swadeshi Mitram”, “Arya Darshan” etc. which contributed in developing national awakening. Press developed Indian consciousness and gave political teaching to Indians.

Question 3.
How were the cottage industries affected by British Policy of economic exploitation?
Or
How the Indian cottage industry was effected by economic exploitation policy of Britishers? (MP Board 2009, 2012, 2013)
Answer:
Dissatisfaction arises from the economic exploitation. With the establishment of British empire and the industrial revolution in England, Indian cottage industries suffered a blow.

The goods exported from India had a heavy tax levied on them in foreign market whereas imported goods from England were made tax free, to sell in the Indian market. This made the money flow out of India and destabilized the economy. This drove the Indians to struggle against the economic slavery.

10th Social Science Book Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening Establishment of Political Organizations in India

Question 4.
Why did the Europeon staying in Indian protested against the Illbert Bill? (MP Board 2010, 2012)
Answer:
The viceroy Lord Rippon attempted to make a bill to abolish the policy of discrimination. This was prepared by law member Ilbert, that’s why it was called Illbert Bill. According to this bill, Indian Magistrates and Session Judges were given entitlement to hear criminal cases against Europeans.

Prior to the introduction of this bill Indian Magistrates were not authorized to hear the court cases against European criminals and, Illbert Bill was a step to remove the discriminating policy against Indians. Europeans staying in India collectively protested against this bill and called it a black ruling. At last British Government had to withdraw the Illbert Bill, this affected Indians adversely.

Question 5.
What were the objectives of establishment of Congress?
Or
Write main objectives of establishment of Indian National Congress? (MP Board 2009)
Answer:
The main objectives are:

  1. To stimulate the feelings of patriotism nationalism and unity among the people.
  2. To place the popular demands peacefully before the British Government. The main demands of the period were:
    • The party demanded reform and expansion of the Legislative councils in a Constitutional manner.
    •  It demanded economic reform.
    • It demanded the appointment of Indians to hold positions in the government.
    • It demanded that the miserable condition of Indian industry be improved.
    • Drinking must be prohibited.
    • They demanded a cut in defence expenditure and in taxes too.
    • Primary education must be expanded and technical education be paid due attention.
  3. To create a popular support for the Indian National Congress among the masses.

Social Science Book Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening Establishment of Political Organizations in India

Question 6.
What were the reasons, which in the end of 19th century encouraged the aggressive nationalism? (MP Board 2013)
Or
Write any five causes of rise of aggressive nationalism? (MP Board 2009)
Write main causes of the rise of aggressive nationlism in India? (MP Board 2009)
Answer:
The following are the causes for the emergence aggressive nationalism in the India:

  1. Dissatisfaction of moderator.
  2. Failure of legitimate movements.
  3. Reactionary policy of the British rule.
  4. Social, culture and economic movements.
  5. Impact of western thinking and foreign revolutions.
MP Board Class 10th Social Science Long Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the role of religious and social reform movements in the national awakening? (MP Board 2009)
Answer:
The religious and social reform movements also played a major role in the development of nationalistic feelings. The leaders who pioneered these movements became the prominent leaders of the political awakening. These movements developed a feeling of respect for Indian culture in the hearts of the Indian.

The social and religious reformers and leaders like – Raja Ram Mohan Rai, Swami Vivekanand, Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Ramkrishna Paramhans, Mrs. Annie Besant, etc.

The movements of 19th century were basically religious in nature, yet they had the inclusion of nationalistic feelings in them. In addition to Swami Dayanand Saraswati’s “Arya Samaj” and Swami Viyekanand’s “Ram Krishna Mission” there were many more such movements, to which the nation owed its reawakening.

Among Muslims there were Aligarh and Deoband movements, among Sikhs there were Singh Sabha and Gurudwara reform movements and, Theosophical Society’s movements which changed the society and its thinking. These movements made the future generations ready for the leadership of the nation.

10th Social Science Book Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening Establishment of Political Organizations in India

Question 2.
Describe the causes which led to the establishment of Indian National Congress?
Answer:
Between the years 1870 and 1880, Indian people had become politically conscious and by the year 1885, there was a platform ready for establishment of a political organization on national basis. The credit for giving a definite structure to the All India Organization goes to a retired British officer A.O. Hume.

He was a liberal minded person. Hume had been feeling a need for a political organization which would bridge the gap between the rulers and the people being ruled. Hume wanted the people to adopt the path of valid politics instead of violence and aggression. With the efforts of Mr. Hume, “Indian National Union” was formed.

Hume obtained the permission from Lord Darfin to convene a meeting of “Indian National Union” between 25th December and 31st December in Pune. The objective of the meeting was to acquaint the work force with one another, which was working for the national development and define a political agenda for the development.

Although the place of convention was decided to be Pune, the venue was changed to Mumbai in the last minute. The convention was held on 28th December, 1885 in Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College. With the suggestion from Sir Hume the meeting was named, “Indian National Congress” and thus, Indian National Congress was born.

There were 72 representatives in the convention of formation Indian National Congress. Vyomesh Chandra Benarjee was President of the first convention of Indian National Congress.

Question 3.
Explain how the working style of moderates was different from that of aggressive nationalists?
Answer:
The main moderate leaders were Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendranath Benarjee, Firoj Shah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Ras Bihari Bose, Mahadev Govind Ranade. These leaders had faith in moderate thinking and wanted to pursue their objectives through gradual and legitimate means.

Moderates were believers of legitimate means to pursue their objectives through appeals, memorandums and delegations. In order to influence the British people and politicians, moderates had sent a delegation to England. To make British people aware of problems in India, moderates had started publishing a newspaper called “India”, from London.

Every year moderates used to pass a proposal and convince their demands through logical approach. There was no place for agitation in their programme. They were apprehensive that agitation might result into lawlessness. Initially British took a sympathetic view towards Congress.

Even Government officials used to attend the conventions but/gradually the attitude changed and it was declared as an organisation representing minorities and anti – British. Lai, Bal, Pal led the aggressive movement in India. Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab and V.C. Pal in Bengal activated the movement.

The scheme of working of aggressive leaders was quite different from that of moderates. They believed in sacrifice and martyrdom, as means to achieve freedom. Boycott, Swadeshi and Indian education were there three weapons, which they used to free themselves from the British clutches.

These leaders used the word “Swadeshi” or “Self – Governance” in a different connotation. By self – governance they not only meant obtaining the political rights but also, establishing a political system which would help the Indians progress. The hardliners (aggressive nationalists) were staunch supporters of Boycott and self – rule. By boycott they not only meant to boycott the foreign goods but also, the boycott of Government jobs, institutions and awards.

MP Board Class 10th Social Science Book Solutions Chapter 8 National Awakening Establishment of Political Organizations in India

Question 4. Write notes on

  1. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
  2. Vipin Chandra Pal
  3. Lala Lajpat Rai.

Answer:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak:
Tilak is called as father of aggressive nationalism. His political thinking was very evidently influenced by his religious thinking. His beliefs were firmly placed in natural rights, political freedom and principles of justice.

He gave the proclamaition “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it”. He fought for the cause of freedom and self governance, all his life. He inspired the youngsters to struggle fearlessly and, to be prepared for sacrifice for the country.

Vipin Chandra Pal:
Another aggressive nationalist Vipin Chandra Pal was an influential orator, an accomplished journalist and an educationist. He voiced his opinions through “New India” and “Vande Mataram”. Partition of Bengal was instrumental in drawing his thinking towards aggressive nationalism. Vipin Chandra Pal played a major role in national awakening in Bengal.

Lala Lajpat Rai:
Lala Lajpat Rai was in protest of moderate thinking and actions in Congress. He protested very strongly against the partition of Bengal. He believed that Swaraj was essential for the nation’s development and no reforms and good governance could ever replace Swaraj.

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