In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th Social Science Book Solutions Chapter 1 Resources of India: Soil, Water, Forest and Wild Life Pdf,
MP Board Class 10th Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 Resources of India: Soil, Water, Forest and Wild Life
Table of Contents
Objective Type Questions
Multiple Choice Questions
(Choose the correct answer from the following)
Which factor does not help in the formation of the soil?
(a) Wind and water
(b) Decomposed plants and animals
(c) Rocks and temperature
(d) Water accumulation.
(a) Wind and water
Which soil is generally found in the delta region of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa and the plains of Ganges?
(a) Red soil
(b) Alluvial soil
(c) Black soil
(d) Laterite soil.
(b) Alluvial soil
In which region, the method of making contour bunds is used for soil conservation?
(a) Delta region
(b) Plateau region
Man uses the most?
(a) underground water
(b) Oceanic Water
(c) Surface Water
(d) Atmospheric Water
(a) underground water
Which of the following states is known as Tiger state?
(b) Madhya Pradesh
(b) Madhya Pradesh
The founder of Vanmahostava was?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Pt.Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) K.M. Munshi
(d) Acharya Vinobha Bhave
(c) K.M. Munshi
Most forested state is –
(a) Madhya Pradesh
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Tamil Nady.
Ghana Bird Santuary is located in –
(c) West Bengal
(d) Madhya Pradesh
Question 2. Fill in the blanks:
- ………………. has an important place in Joint Forest Management System.
- Social Forestry Scheme is getting financial assistance from ……………….
- Forest Fire Control Project is working in association with ……………….
- ……………….. and are ……………… established to protect and conserve wild life.
- Forest protection
- World Bank
- Sancturay, Naitonal Parks.
What is meant by soil erosion?
Removal of soil at a large scale from one place to another by some natural agent is known as soil erosion.
What do you mean by soil conservation?
The ever increasing population resulted in the destruction of natural resources. Therefore, to prevent destruction soil conservation is necessary. There are various methods of soil conservation.
What are the sources of underground water?
Rain water is a main source of underground water. Some part of rain water is soaked by the land. Rest of the water percolates and is collected below the surface as underground water.
What is the basis of modified forest policy of 1988?
The main basis of modified forest policy is to maintain environmental stability, to conserve the natural heritage and to check on soil erosion.
What is the basis of the success of social forestry?
This programme of plantation has been started in association with World Bank. It aims to plant useful trees in waste lands, road side and canal embankments near villages. One tree for every child’ this slogan is developed in schools and colleges. People’s participation is increased by publishing Vanmahotsava and by farm forestry, by planting trees road side, railway side and canal embankments.
Question 6.Why Indian Institute of Forest Management had been established?
This institute had been established in Ahemdabad in 1978 in collaboration with a Swidish Company for the development of the forest. Central Government has also established Indian Institute of Forest Management in Bhopal for training, research and consultancy purposes.
What is meant by soil profile? Explain?
Soil profile is the sequence, colour, texture and nature of the horizons (layers) superimposed one above the other and exposed in a pit – section dug through the soil mantle,
- Upper most layer is top soil
- Second layer is sub soil
- Third layer is weathered parent rock material
- Fourth layer consists of parent rocks.
Top soil of the upper most layer is the real soil. Its important characteristic is the presence of humans and organic matter. Second layer is sub soil which consists of rocks, sand particles and clay. Third layer consists of weathered parent rock material and the fourth layer is made of parent rocks.
What is importance of soil in human life? Explain?
Soil is very important for human life, especially for farmers. Human life depends on soil. All living organisms get their food directly or indirectly from soil. We get cotton, silk, jute and wool for making
clothes from soil, either directly or indirectly, e.g. sheep eats grass and gives us wool, silk worms survive on vegetation and vegetation grows in soil. Our industries like animal rearing, agriculture and forest – based industries all depend on soil. So soil is the basis of our life. According to Wil Cox, ‘The history of civilization is the history of the soil and the education of the individual begins from the soil.’
Differentiate between Red Soil and Laterite Soil ?
- Red soil is formed due to weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
- It is highly porous and less fertile but where it is deep it is fertile.
- It is less crystalline.
- It is red in colour due to the presence of iron in it.
- It occurs in part of Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Orissa, Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh.
- Laterite soil is formed by the leaching process in the heavy rainfall areas of tropical India.
- It is less fertile, only grass grows on it in abundance.
- It is crystalline.
- It is red in colour due to little clay and much gravel of red sandstones.
- It is found is hills of the Deccan, Karnataka, Orissa, Assam, Meghalaya and Kerala.
What are the measures of water conservation?
The judicious utilization, conservation and management of water resources is necessary. In the view of the limited water available, increasing demand and its uneven availability it has become imperative to conserve the water resources. Following three steps are essential in this direction:
- To collect the rainwater and stop it from draining off.
- Scientific management of the water resources of all the river watersheds minor to major.
- Prevention of water resources from pollution.
Rain water harvesting is important. Why?
Natural water is precious but abundantly available during rainy season. But due to carelessness of the people it goes wasted. We know that the crisis of fresh and pure water has became a world wide problem. So it is call of time to collect such a huge quantity of water by constructing reservoir on the roof or nearby the house or roadways.
Conservation of forest is necessary, why?
Conservation of forests is necessary, because of the following:
- Plants provide food for men and animals.
- They help in the maintenance of ecosystem.
- They give oxygen necessary for the survival of men and animals.
- They provide us timber for building, doors, houses, etc.
- They give us herbal medicines.
- They help in soil erosion.
Explain forest based industries?
Forests provide a large number of minor produce which are essential for industries such as lac, tanning materials, gum, honey, katha, wax, resins, bamboo, medicinal herbs, horn and hides of animals etc. Forests provide materials for basic industries i.e., wood is useful raw material for several industries like paper, match, lac, leather, oil and herbal medicines. Small scale industries developed from the minor forest provide like tendupatta, cane, honey, wax, etc.
Question 8.How does forest control the climate?
It is necessary for a country to have a proper echological balance. A country should therefore have at least one third of its land area covered with the forests. A larger area under forest is must for absorption of carbon – di – oxide, the accumulation of which is likely to accentuate green house effect. This ‘effect’ may further give rise to general increase in temperature globally and ultimately melt the icecaped areas of the world. This would cause great loss to the life and property of the people living in low lying areas of the world. Thus, the forests would vanish by these natural calamities brought by the man.
Write down the chief characteristics of Forests Policy of December 1988?
The following are the chief characteristics of the Forests Policy of Decemeber 1988:
- Substantial increase in forest tree cover through massive forestation and social forestry programmes.
- Steps to meet requirements of fuel wood, fodder and minor forest produce and timber for tribal and rural populations.
- Increase in productivity of forest to meet the national needs.
- Encouragement of efficient utilisation of forest produce and optimum substitution of wood.
- Steps to massive people’s movement with involvement of women to achieve the objective and minimise pressure on existing forests.
What is Social Forestry Scheme?
Social Forestry Scheme means the scheme for an awareness of tree plantation with the help of government and non – governmental institution. There is a known slogan ‘one tree for every child’ geared up to the students of schools and colleges is a serious measure to implement this variety of ecological scheme. This scheme of plantation is started in association with World Bank.
What is soil? Describe different types of soil, their characteristics and distribution?
The – uppermost layer of the earth’s crust, which is useful for cultivations and the basic resource of agriculture is called soil. The soils of India are:
- Alluvial soil
- Black soil
- Red soil, and
- Laterite soil.
1. Alluvial Soil:
Alluvial soil is considered to be a most fertile soil which forms the largest and the most important soil group of India. It contributes the largest share to the country’s agricultural production.
Alluvial soil covers about 43.7% of the total land area under cultivation. The entire northern plain of India is made up of alluvial soil.
These soils are made up of new alluvium and old alluvium. These soils contain fine particles of soil called alluvium. The soil is called new and old depending upon their period of deposit.
Alluvium soils are very fertile soils as they contain adequate amount of potash, phosphoric acid and lime. All the river basin generally have alluvial soils. It supports over half the Indian population.
2. Black Soil:
These soils are black in colour and are very suitable for the cultivation of cotton.
These soils are spread all over the Deccan trap and are made up of lava flows. They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurastra, Malwa and southern Madhya Pradesh and extend eastwards in the south along the Godavari and Krishan Valley.
The Regur soils or Black soils contain calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, potash and lime. They are generally poor in phosphoric content. The soils consisting of extremely fine clay material known for their sticky characteristics are also called Black soils.
Regur soils are very important and suitable for the cultivation of cotton, that is why they are sometimes also called cotton soil.
3. Red Soil:
These soils are derived from crystalline and metamorphic rocks rich in minerals.
The southern half of peninsular block is covered by red soils of different shades of red and yellow. This type of soil can be seen in Chotanagpur plateau, Orissa, east Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Nigiries and Tamilnadu plateau. These soil areas are also found northwards in the west along the Konkan coast of Maharashtra.
Red soils are loamy in deep depressions and in uplands. They contain loose grave (a highly coarse material and are deficient in phosphoric acid, organic matter and nitrogenous material.
Since these soils are loamy and are made up of coarse material, they are not fertile. They are deficient in the organic matter and nitrogenous material that makes it less fertile.
4. Laterite Soil:
The laterite soil is a result of intense leaching owing to heavy tropical rains.
They are found in western coastal regions receiving very heavy rainfall. They are also found in patches along the edge of the plateau in the east covering small parts of Tamilnadu and Orissa, a small part of Chotanagpur and Meghalaya in the north east.
These soil’s have resulted due to intense leaching owing to heavy tropical rainfall.
These soils are invariably poor and support only pastures and scrub forests.
What is soil erosion? Explain the causes of soil erosion and methods of conservation of soil?
The term erosion means the loosening and removal of soil from its previous resting place by the action of water and other agents. In India, soil erosion is in many places a serious menace. The extent to which erosion is liable to occur will vary with the condition but at any point its incidence is determined by the following factors:
- The configuration, and particularly the slope of the land.
- The credibility of the soil.
- The amount distribution and intensity of the rainfall.
- The vegetable cover.
- The system of husbandary and soil management practiced.
Causes of soil erosion are:
- Shifting agriculture
- Wind erosion
- Agriculture by non-scientific methods.
The ever increasing population resulted in the destruction of natural resources. Therefore, to prevent destruction, soil conservation is necessary. There are various methods of soil conservation.
- Contour farming
- To prevent gully erosion by making field ridge.
- Prevention of soil erosion by planting trees as wind breaks in deserts which check the velocity of wind. By doing plantation on the follow land and mountain slopes and by controlled grazing.
- By collecting the run off water in mountain slopes and uneven areas.
- By developing grazing land in the rural areas.
Draw a labelled diagram of soil profile?
Soil profile is the sequence, colour, texture, nature of the horizons (layers) superimposed one above the other and exposed in a pit – section dug through the soil mantle. Top soil of the upper most layer is the real soil. Its important characteristic is the presence of humans and organic matter.
Second layer is sub soil which consists of rocks, sand particles and clay. Third layer consists of weathered parent rock material and the fourth layer is made of parent rocks.
What are the main sources of water resource? What is importance of water resources in human life?
There are four major sources of water.
- Surface water
- Ground water
- Atmospheric water, and
- Oceanic Water.
1. Surface water:
The surface water is available in rivers, ponds and lakes. Rivers are the main source of surface water in India. Rivers and its tributaries are found in each and every part of India. Three main rivers are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and they carry nearly 60 percent of the total surface water in India. Among the major rivers of the world, the Brahmaputra and the Ganga are at eighth and tenth places respectively.
2. Ground water:
Some part of rain water is soaked by the land. Only 60 percent reaches the upper layer of the soil, which is very useful for agriculture and vegetation to grow. Rest of the water percolates and is collected below the surface as ground water. It is obtained on the surface through wells and tubewells and is used by human beings for irrigation purposes, gardening and industrial purposes.
3. Atmospheric water:
This is in the form of water vapour therefore, it is not used.
4. Ocean water:
This type of water is mainly used for transport and fishing industry. Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean are in the West, East and South of India respectively. Importance of water in human life is as follows:
- To provide irrigational facilities.
- To conserve the soil fertility as the flood.
- To generate hydro – electric power.
- To promote navigation through canals and rivers.
- To promote tourism as beach tourism.
- To promote fish culture, and
- To store water, which can be used when it is in greater demand.
Describe the methods of water conservation. Why is it necessary?
Why is water conservation necessary? Describe its main methods? (MP Board 2009,)
The following are the crucial methods for the water conservation:
- To collect rain water and stop it from draining off.
- Scientific management of water resources.
- Prevention of water resources from industrial and domestic pollution.
The availability of water for agricultural and other purpose is inadequate and irregular in our country. Being the monsoon, the bulk of rainfall is confined to a brief period of three to four months. Even the places of high rainfall like Cherrapunji and Konkan having heavy rainfall face scarcity of water during the dry season.
Secondly the distribution of rainfall is unequal for example our ground water resources are abundant only in the northern and coastal plains and in the other parts of the country its supply is inadequate. The river water of the Country is also not well connected by canals. In short, the supply of water in India depends on Monsoons and also the topography of land.
Therefore we feel that it is necessary to conserve this precious natural resource. Running water of rivers may be used for irrigation by constructing a canal. Similarly, dams may to constructed to produce electricity.
Describe direct and indirect advantages of forests? (MP Board .2009, 2013)
Mention the direct and indirect advantages of forests? (MP Board 2009)
Direct advantages of the forests are:
1. Forest provides wood:
Wood from forests is an important fuel. Wood and cow dung produces 34.6 per cent of total power resources. They provide us Teak, Sal, Shisham, Pine, Abnoos, Sandle wood and Deodar. Wood is also used for making furniture.
2. Forests provide minor forest produce:
Forests produce a large number of minor product which are essential for industries such as lac, tanning materials, gum, honey, katha, wax, resins, bamboo, medicinal herbs, horn and hides of animals etc.
Forests provide materials for basic industries i.e., wood is useful raw material for several industries like paper, match, lac, leather, oil and herbal medicines. Small scale industries developed from the minor forest provide like tendupatta, cane, honey, wax, etc.
3. Grazing land for animals:
Forests provide natural pastures for grazing animals.
About 7.8 crore people depend on forests for their livelihood. Many industries are based on raw materials from forests giving employment to crores of people.
5. Revenue generation:
Government receive crores of rupees from the forests as revenue and royalty. Presently this revenue is 670 crore rupees per annum.
Indirect advantages of the forests are:
1. Control soil erosion:
Trees firmly enclose and considerably reduce soil erosion. Trees hold the fertile top layer of the soil.
2. Control the climate:
Forest act as wind breaks which check the velocity of wind. The climate of forest area remains temperate.
3. Check floods:
Speed of water is reduced by the existence of forests. Water is reduced by the trees. The force of water is reduced by the extensive forest cover.
4. Control expansion of desert areas:
Sardar Patel said, “If expansion of deserts are to be controlled and human civilization is to be prevented then the destruction of forest wealth is to be prevented.”
Describe the efforts of government in forest conservation?
In 1950 after independence, Central Forest Board was established. New forest policy was made. Its four main points were:
- Forest area should be increased to 33.3 per cent.
- Protection of forests
- Forestry research.
The policy was revised on 7th December 1988. The main aim of the forest policy of 1988 is protection, conservation and development of forests. Policy holds the following objectives:
- Maintenance of environmental stability through preservation and restoration of ecological balance.
- Conservation of natural heritage.
- Check on soil erosion and denudation in catchment areas of river, lakes and reservoirs.
In 1990, a 20 – year National Forestry Action programme was launched to make National Forest Policy of 1988 functional. For the development of the forests following activities are taking place:
- Establishment of Central Forest Commission.
- Indian Forest Survey Organisation.
- Council of Forestry Research and Education.
- Establishment of Wood Craft Training Centre.
- State Forest Development Corporations.
- Indian Institute of Forest Management.
Why wildlife conservation is necessary? What are the measures of wildlife conservation? (MP Board, 2011)
Depletion of forest has endangered plant and wildlife. Several species have already become extinct. In order to preserve natural habitat and protect them from becoming extinct the government has set up many programmes. There are also programmes for conservation of wetland mangroves and coral reefs under the preservation of special ecosystem.
Coral reefs are characterized by high biomass production and rich floral and faunal diversity four coral reefs have been identified for conservation and management. Periodic census of wild animals are undertaken to check the number of certain species getting reduced. The hunting of wild animals and. birds has been banned and hunters are penalised. Conservation of wildlife: Following efforts can be made to protect the wildlife:
- Safeguarding the national habitat of the wild animals.
- Poaching should be restricted.
- Establishing biosphere reserves in forest areas.
- Educating public for environmental protection at levels of education.
- Implementation of wildlife management programmes.
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