MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 7 Control And Coordination Solutions

In this article, we will share MP Board Solutions Class 10th Science Chapter 7 Control And Coordination Solution with free pdf file.

Board Madhya Pradesh
Class10th
SubjectScience
Chapter 7 Control And Coordination
MP Board 10th Science Chapter 7 Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 7 NCERT Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
Which of the following is a plant hormone?
(a) Insulin
(b) Thyroxin
(c) Oestrogen
(d) Cytokinin
Answer:
(d) Cytokinin is a plant hormone.

Question 2.
The gap between two neurons is called a
(a) Dendrite
(b) Synapse
(c) Axon
(d) Impulse
Answer:
(b) The gap between two neurons is called a synapse.

Question 3.
The brain is responsible for:
(a) Thinking
(b) Regulating the heart beat
(c) Balancing the body
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) The brain is responsible for thinking, regulating the heart beat and balancing the body.

Question 4.
What is the function of receptors in our body? Think of situations where receptors do not work properly. What problems are likely to arise?
Answer:
Receptors are sensory structures (organs/tissues or cells) present all over the body. The receptors are either grouped in case of eye Or ear, or scattered in case of skin. Functions of receptors:
(i) They sense the external stimuli such as heat or pain.
(ii) They also trigger an impulse in the sensory neuron which sends message to the spinal cord. When the receptors are damaged, the external stimuli transferring signals to the brain are not felt. For example, in the case of damaged receptors, if we accidentally touch any hot object, then our hands might get burnt as damaged , receptors cannot perceive the external stimuli of heat and pain.

Question 5.
Draw the structure of a neuron and explain its function.
Answer:
Neurons are the functional units of the nervous system.
Structure of a Neuron:

MP Board Solutions

The three main parts of a neuron are axon, dendrite and cell body.

Functions of the three parts of a neuron:

  1. Axon: It conducts messages away from the cell body. It is the part by which information travels as an electrical impulse.
  2. Dendrite: It is the part where information is acquired, it receives information from axon of other cell or initiation point and conducts the messages towards the cell body.
  3. Cell body: It is the part where impulse get converted into a chemical signal forwarding transmission. It is mainly concerned with the maintenance and growth.

Question 6.
How does phototropism occur in plants?
Answer:
When growing plants detect light, a hormone called auxin, synthesised at ‘ the shoot tip, helps the cells to grow longer towards light. When light is coming from one side of the plant, Ans: auxin diffuses towards the shady side of the shoot. This concentration of auxin stimulates the cells to grow longer on the side of the shoot which is away from the light. Thus the plant appears to bend towards light, i,e, phototropism.

Question 7.
Which signals will get disrupted in case of a spinal cord injury?
Answer:
Spinal cord is made up of nerves which supply information to think about Nerves from all over the body meet in a bundle in the spinal cord on their way to the brain. Reflex arcs are formed in this spinal cord it self, although the information input also goes on to reach the brain. So if it is injured there is obstruction for carrying impulses to other parts.

Question 8.
How does chemical coordination occur in plants?
Answer:
Different plant hormones help to coordinate growth, development and response to the environment. When growing plants detect light, a hormone called auxin, synthesised at the shoot tip, helps the cells to grow longer. Gibberellins helps in the growth of the stem. Cytokinins promote cell division.

Question 9.
What is the need for a system of control and coordination in an organism?
Answer:
The maintenance of the body functions in response to changes in the body by working together of various integrated body systems is known as coordination. All the movements that occur in response to stimuli are carefully coordinated and controlled. In animals, the control and coordination movements are provided by nervous and muscular systems. The nervous system sends messages to and away from the brain. The spinal cord plays an important role in the relay of messages. In the absence of this system of control and coordination, our body will not be able to function properly. For example, when we accidentally touch a hot utensil, we immediately withdraw our hand. In the absence of nerve transmission, we will not withdraw our hand and may get burnt.

Question 10.
How are involuntary actions and reflex actions different from each other?
Answer:
Involuntary actions cannot be consciously controlled. For example, we cannot consciously control the movement of food in the alimentary canal. These actions are however, directly under the control of the brain. On the other hand, the reflex actions such as closing of eyes immediately when bright light is focussed show sudden response and do not involve any thinking. This means that unlike involuntary actions, the reflex actions are not under the control of brain.

Question 11.
Compare and contrast nervous and hormonal mechanisms for control and coordination in animals.
Answer:
Nervous system mechanism

  1. The information is conveyed in the form of electric impulse.
  2. The axons and dendrites transmit the information through a coordinated effort.
  3. The flow of information is rapid and the response is quick.
  4. Its effects are short lived.

Hormonal 

system mechanism

  1. The information is conveyed in the form of chemical messengers.
  2. The information is transmitted or transported through blood.
  3. The information travels slowly and the response is slow.
  4. It has prolonged effects.

Question 12.
What is the difference between the manner in which movement takes place in a sensitive plant and the movement in our legs?
Answer:
In a sensitive plant the cells change shape by changing the amount of water in them, resulting in swelling or shrinking and there fore leading to limited movements. Movement in our legs is voluntary action done by muscle tissue regulated by central nervous system.

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 7 Additional Important Questions

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The brain box which protect internal part of brain is called:
(a) Skull
(b) Peripheral Nervous System
(c) Autonomic Nervous System
(d) Ribs
Answer:
(a) Skull

Question 2.
Secondary sexual characteristics are controlled by:
(a) Central Nervous System
(b) Peripheral Nervous System
(c) Autonomic Nervous System
(d) Endocrine gland
Answer:
(d) Endocrine gland

Question 3.
The activities of the internal organs are controlled by the:
(a) Central Nervous System
(b) Peripheral Nervous System
(c) Autonomic Nervous System
(d) Endocrine glands
Answer:
(a) Central Nervous System

Question 4.
Which pari of brain is the seat of intelligence and voluntary actions?
(a) Diencephalon
(b) Cerebrum
(c) Cerebellum
(d) Medulla oblongata
Answer:
(b) Cerebrum

Question 5.
Cell division in plant is affected by:
(a) Ethylene
(b) Auxin
(c) Gibberellin
(d) Cytokinin
Answer:
(d) Cytokinin

Question 6.
The gap between two neurons is known as……
(a) Synapse
(b) Synopsis
(c) Impulse
(d) Synaptic node
Answer:
(a) Synapse

Question 7.
Which of the follow ing is a plant hormone?
(a) Thyroxin
(b) Cytokinin
(c) Insulin
(d) Oestrogen
Answer:
(b) Cytokinin

Question 8.
Tropic movements are:
(a) In response to light
(b) In response to gravity
(c) Uni-directional
(d) Non – directional
Answer:
(c) Uni-directional

Question 9.
Artifical ripening of fruit is carried out by:
(a) Auxins
(b) Ethylene
(c) Abscisic acid (ABA)
(d) Gibberellins
Answer:
(b) Ethylene

MP Board Solutions

Question 10.
The part of brain that controls respiration, heartbeat and peristalsisis:
(a) Cerebrum
(b) Cerebellum
(c) Pons
(d) Medulla
Answer:
(d) Medulla

Question 11.
The brain is responsible for:
(a) Thinking
(b) Regulating the heart beat
(c) Balancing the body
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Question 12.
Which of the following hormone is released by thyroid?
(a) Insulin
(b) Thyroxine
(c) Trypsin
(d) Pepsin
Answer:
(b) Thyroxine

Question 13.
Which body organ is surrounded by meninges?
(a) Heart and Lungs
(b) Brain and Heart
(c) Brain and Spinal Cord
(d) Spinal Cord and Lungs
Answer:
(c) Brain and Spinal Cord

Question 14.
The part of brain that controls muscular co-ordination is
(a) Cerebrum
(b) Cerebellum
(c) Pons
(d) Medulla
Answer:
(b) Cerebellum

Question 15.
Growth of the stem is controlled by:
(a) Gibberellin
(b) Auxin
(c) Abscisic acid
(d) Cytokinin
Answer:
(a) Gibberellin

Question 16.
Cause wilting of leaves? Which hormone
(a) Gibberellin
(b) Auxin
(c) Abscisic acid
(d) Cytokinin
Answer:
(c) Abscisic acid

MP Board Solutions

Question 17.
Which of the following hormones contains iodine?
(a) Adrenaline
(b) Testosterone
(c) Thyroxine
(d) Insulin
Answer:
(c) Thyroxine

Question 18.
Which part of brain controls the posture and balance of the body?
(b) Cerebellum
(d) Medulla
Ans.
(b) Medulla

MP Board Solutions

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is considered as the structural and functional unit of the nervous system?
Answer:
Neuron or Nerve cell.

Question 2.
What is called an automatic response to a stimulus which is not controlled by the brain?
Answer:
Reflex action.

Question 3.
How do plants respond to stimuli without any kind of nervous systems?
Answer:
Plants respond to stimuli without any kind of nervous systems with the help of plant hormones.

Question 4.
What are the other factors which control and coordinate in plants and animals other than CNS and reflex actions?
Answer:
Hormones.

Question 5.
What is phototropism?
Answer:
The movement of a plant’s part towards light is called phototropism.

Question 6.
What we call to:

  1. the movement of plant to the availability of water?
  2. the movement of plant to the earth’s gravity?

Answer:

  1. Hydrotropism.
  2. Geotropism.

Question 7.
Which system of our body is related to hormones which constitutes a second way of control and coordination in our body?
Answer:
Endocrine system.

MP Board Solutions

Question 8.
How many Endocrine glands are situated in our brain? Name them.
Answer:
Three: Hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands.

Question 9.
What is considered as the reflex centre of the brain?
Answer:
Medulla oblongata.

Question 10.
Which structure is related to both nervous system and endocrine system in our body?
Answer:
Hypothalamus.

Question 11.
Which part of the brain maintains posture and equilibrium of the body?
Answer:
Cerebellum.

Question 12.
Name the substance important for synthesis of thyroxine.
Answer:
Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroxine.

Question 13.
How thyroxine initiate growth in our body?
Answer:
Thyroxine regulates carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism in our body and provide proper energy which causes the best balance for growth.

Question 14.
Who gave the term phytohormones?
Answer:
Thimann.

MP Board 10th Science Chapter 7 Control and Coordination Solutions

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write importance of control and coordination in living organisms.
Answer:

  • Control and coordination increase the chances of survival by responding to stimuli.
  • Different body parts function in coordination to each other as a single unit.

Question 2.
What is hyperglycemia?
Answer:
Hyperglycemia refers to high sugar level in blood. In general, diabetic patients has hyperglycemia due to insufficient release of insulin hormone. .

Question 3.
What are reasons for many drastic changes in appearance at 10-12 years of age?
Answer:
These changes are associated with puberty and are because of the secretion of testosterone in males and oestrogen in females.

Question 4.
Write down the functions performed by cerebrum.
Answer:
The cerebrum performs the following functions:

  • It controls our mental abilities like thinking, reasoning, learning, memorising etc.
  • It controls our feelings, emotions and speech.
  • It controls all involuntary functions.

Question 5.
What are the functions of cerebellum?
Answer:
Functions of cerebellum:

  • Maintains equilibrium or balance of the body.
  • Coordinates muscular movement.
  • Maintains posture of the body.

Question 6.
How soft and delicate brain is safe inside a human body?
Answer:
Brain is placed safely inside a bony box called cranium by the nature, within which there are 3 layers of fluid-filled (called cerebrospinal fluid) membranes (called meninges) which absorb external shock.

Question 7.
What is the role of the brain in reflex action?
Answer:
Brain has no role in reflex action response. Instead, spinal cord is the control center of a reflex action. In fact, brain becomes aware after the reflex arc has been formed.

Question 8.
What do you mean by reflex action? Give examples of reflex actions.
Answer:
It is defined as fast, unconscious, immediate, automatic and involuntary response of the body in parts or total (through effectors) to c «dmulus. It is monitored through spinal cord.

Examples of reflex actions:

  • Closing of eyes with bright light.
  • Knee-Jerk.
  • Withdrawal of body parts when pricked by a pin.

Question 9.
What are the different types of reflexes?
Answer:
There are two types of reflexes:

  • Unconditioned reflexes.
  • Conditioned reflexes.

Question 10.
What is reflex arc?
Answer:
The structural and functional unit that carries our reflex action is called a reflex arc. It consists of:

  • A receptor.
  • Sensory nerve (afferent)
  • Motor nerve (efferent)
  • Spinal cord.
  • Inter-neuron and effector

Question 11.
Write important functions of different plant hormones?
Answer:
The five major types of phytohormones and their functions are:

  • Auxins: Promote cell division, bending of shoot towards the source of light.
  • Cytokinins: Promote cell division.
  • Gibberellins: Stimulate stem elongation.
  • Abscisic acid: Inhibit growth, closing of stomata and dormancy.
  • Ethylene( gas hormone): Promotes fruit ripening and growth.

Question 12.
How is the movement of leaves of the sensitive plant different from the movement of a shoot towards light?
Answer:
The movement of leaves of the sensitive plant, (e.g. Mimosa pudica or touch-me-not) occurs in response to touch or contact stimuli. It is a growth independent movement (nastic movement).

The movement of shoot towards light is called photo-tropism. This type of movement is directional and is growth dependent.

Question 13.
Write some points about the character of nastic movement.
Answer:
Characters of Nastic Movements in plants:

  1. Growth independent movements.
  2. Time of action – immediate.
  3. Response to stimulus – Non-directional.
  4. Motive – Change in turgor.

Examples – Folding of leaves of touch-me-not (mimosa).

Question 14.
What is chemotropism?
Answer:
Directional movement of a plant or its part in response to chemicals is called chemotropism, e.g. outward growth of the shoot from origin.

Question 15.
Define geotropism.
Answer:
Roots move in the direction of gravity (positive + ve geotropism).
Shoots move (up) against direction of gravity (negative -ve geotropism).

MP Board Solutions

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What are the limitations of nervous system in human body? How it is overcomed?
Answer:
A chemical signal in the form of hormones would reach all cells of the body and provide the wide range of changes needed while nervous system in human body works or communicates using nerve impulses which are form of electrical impulses in limited nerve network. Electrical impulses are an excellent means of communication in human body but they have limitations like:

  • They reach only those cells that are connected by nervous tissue, not each and every cell in the animal body.
  • Cells cannot continually create and transmit electrical impulses.
  • Hormone or endocrine system is slower than nerve cells but potentially reach all cells of the body.

Question 2. Why is the use of iodised salt advised? Why are some patients of diabetes treated by giving injections of insulin?
Answer:
It is advised to use iodised salt to prevent goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland). Iodine is required for the proper functioning of thyroid. Iodine stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine hormone. This hormone regulates carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism in our body. Diabetes is a condition in which sugar level in blood is very high. Insulin hormone is released by pancreas glands which regulates the blood sugar level.

In diabetic patients, pancreas stop releasing insulin hormone. If it is not secreted in proper amounts, the sugar level in the blood rises causing many harmful effects. Due to this reason, diabetic patients are treated by giving injections of insulin.

The timing and amount of hormone released are regulated by feedback mechanisms. When the sugar levels in blood rise, they are detected by the cells of the pancreas which respond by producing more insulin. As the blood sugar level falls, insulin secretion is reduced.

Question 3. How does adrenaline act during emergency?
Answer:
During emergency situations, adrenaline hormone is released into blood stream in large quantities. It increases the heartbeat and hence supplies more oxygen to the muscles. The increase in breathing rate also increases due to contractions of diaphragm and rib muscles.

It raises the blood pressure and thus, enable the body to cope up with any stress or emergency. Adrenaline hormone is secreted by the adrenal glands. It helps to regulate heart beat, blood pressure and metabolism in the times of stress or emergency to cope up with the situation.

Question 4. What happens at the synapse between two neurons?
Answer:
Synapse is a very small gap between the last portion of axon of one neuron and the dendron of the other neuron. It acts as a one way valve to transmit impulses. This is one directional flow of impulses because the chemicals are produced only on one side of the neuron i.e., the axon’s side. Via axon, the impulses travel across the synapse to the dendron of the other neuron.

In total, synapse performs the following tasks:

  1. It allows the information to pass from one neuron to another.
  2. It ensures the passage of nerve impulse in one direction only.
  3. It helps in information processing by combining the effects of all impulses received.

Question 5. How do we detect the smell of any food?
Answer:
The fore-brain is the main thinking part of the brain. It has regions which receive sensory impulses from various receptors. Separate areas of the fore-brain are specialised for hearing, smell, sight and so on.

Olfactoreceptors (present in nose) send the information about the smell of incense stick to fore-brain. The fore-brain interprets it along with information received from other receptors as well as with information that is already stored in the brain.

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