MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds Solutions

In This article, we will share MP Board Solutions Class 10th Science Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds Solutions with Pdf File.

Board Madhya Pradesh
Class10th
SubjectScience
Chapter 4 Carbon and Its Compounds
MP Board 10th Science Chapter 4 Solutions

Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which of the following is a three-carbon compound?
(a) Ethene
(b) Ethane
(c) Propane
(d) Acetylene
Answer:
(c) Propane

Question 2.
Which one of the following is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?
(a) Acetylene
(b) Butane
(c) Propane
(d) Decane
Answer:
(a) Acetylene

Question 3.
Two neighbours of homologous series differ by:
(a) -CH
(b) -CH2
(c) -CH3
(d) -CH4
Answer:
(b) -CH2

Question 4.
General formula of alkanes is –
(a) CnH2n+2
(b) CnH2n
(c) CnH2n-2
(d) CnHn
Answer:
(a) CnH2n+2

MP Board Solutions

Question 5.
Which of the following represents alkynes?
(a) -C – C-
(b) -C = C-
(c) -C ≡ C-
(d) None of these
Answer:
(c) -C ≡ C-

Question 6.
Which of the following represents ketones?
(a) -C = O
(b) -OH
(c) -CHO
(d) COOH
Answer:
(a) -C = O

Question 7.
Which of the following is not an aliphatic hydrocarbon?
(a) ethene
(b) ethane
(c) propyne
(d) benzene
Answer:
(d) benzene

Question 8.
Complete combustion of a hydrocarbon gives:
(a) CO + H2O
(b) CO2 + H2O
(c) CO + H2
(d) CO2 + H2
Answer:
(b) CO2 + H2O

Question 9.
Which is NOT correct for isomers of a compound?
(a) They differ in physical properties.
(b) They differ in chemical properties.
(c) They have the same molecular formula.
(d) They have the same structural formula.
Answer:
(d) They have the same structural formula.

Question 10.
Buckminsterfullerene is an example of ………….. of carbon.
(a) an isomer
(b) an isotope
(c) an allotrope
(d) a functional group
Answer:
(c) an allotrope

Question 11.
Who prepared urea for the first time by heating ammonium cyanate?
(a) Wohler
(b) Lavoisier
(c) Fuller
(d) Haber
Answer:
(a) Wohler

Question 12.
Hexanone is a four-carbon compound with the functional group:
(a) Carboxylic acid
(b) Aldehyde
(c) Ketone
(d) Alcohol
Answer:
(c) Ketone

Question 13.
Major constituent of LPG is ………….
(a) Ethene
(b) Butane
(c) Propane
(d) Pentane
Answer:
(b) Butane

Question 14.
The gas used in welding and cutting metals is:
(a) Ethyne
(b) Ethene
(c) Ethane
(d) Propane
Answer:
(a) Ethyne

MP Board Solutions

Question 15.
How is carbon atoms arranged in Buckminster fullerenes?
(a) Triangle shape
(b) Hexagonal array
(c) Football shape
(d) None
Answer:
(c) Football shape

Question 16.
Vinegar is a solution of –
(a) 40%-45% acetic acid.
(b) 90%-95% acetic acid.
(c) 5-20% acetic acid and water.
(d) 35-40% acetic acid and water.
Answer:
(c) 5-20% acetic acid and water.

Question 17.
How many covalent bonds are there in Bromoethane?
(a) 4
(b) 6
(c) 10
(d) 7
Answer:
(d) 7

Question 18.
Which functional group is present in propane?
(a) Aldehyde
(b) No group
(c) Ketone
(d) Alcohol
Answer:
(b) No group

Question 19.
Which compound/molecule is being presented by the following formula: H: C:: C: H
(a) Ethane
(b) Ethene
(c) Ethyne
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Ethene

Question 20.
Next homologous to C2H5OH will be:
(a) CH4
(b) C2H6
(c) C3H5
(d) C3H7OH
Answer:
(d) C3H7OH

Question 21.
When we burn naphthalene it produces:
(a) Smoky flame
(b) Non-sooty flame
(c) Colourless flame
(d) No flame
Answer:
(a) Smoky flame

Question 22.
Bunsen burner is used for:
(a) making food.
(b) study flames type.
(c) low heating work.
(d) all the above.
Answer:
(c) low heating work.

Question 23.
See the figure carefully.

Choose the suitable name of isomer:
(a) Neo-pentane
(b) n-pentane
(c) Iso-pentane
(d) All
Answer:
(c) Iso-pentane

Question 25.
What is the name of CH3-CH2-Br? Choose from the following:
(a) Hex-1-one
(b) Hexanal
(c) Ethanoic acid
(d) None
Answer:
(d) None

Question 26.
What happens on the litmus test of soap?
(a) No change
(b) Red litmus turns blue
(c) Red litmus turn purple
(d) Red litmus turn green
Answer:
(b) Red litmus turns blue

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name two groups which can have the same general formula.
Answer:
Both alkenes and cyclo-alkanes can be represented by the same general formula.

Question 2.
Which group of compounds have general formula C2H2n?
Answer:
The general formula CnH2n represents alkenes group of compounds.

Question 3.
What is the common name and IUPAC name for CH3COCH3?
Answer:
Acetone is the common name and propanone is the IUPAC name for CH3COCH3.

Question 4.
Do isomers always show same chemical properties?
Answer:
No, isomers always do not show the same chemical properties.

Question 5.
What is the common name and formula for ethanol?
Answer:
Alcohol, CH3CH2OH.

Question 6.
What are the products of complete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
Answer:
Carbon dioxide and water.

Question 7.
What is next homologue of C3H7OH is called?
Answer:
The next homologue of C3H7OH is called butanol C4H9OH.

Question 8.
What are isomers?
Answer:
The compounds which have the same molecular formula but different structures and chemical properties are called isomers.

Question 9.
Which one are more reactive unsaturated hydrocarbons or saturated hydrocarbons? Give reason.
Answer:
Unsaturated hydrocarbons: The Presence of double and triple covalent bonds make them more reactive.

Question 10.
Discuss the general nature of covalent compounds in water.
Answer:
Generally, they are insoluble in water.

Question 11.
What type of hydrocarbons takes part in an addition reaction?
Answer:
Unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Question 12.
Which carboxylic acid freezes during winter or under cold climate conditions?
Answer:
Acetic acid and hence, known as glacial acetic acid.

Question 13.
What is the difference in molecular masses of any two successive homologous alkanes?
Answer:
14 units.

Question 14.
What is the molecular formula of the alcohol which can be derived from propane?
Answer:
Alcohol obtained from propane is propanol -1 and the molecular formula is C3H7OH.

Question 15.
Give the names of the functional groups: (CBSE 2007)

  1. -CHO
  2. -COOH

Answer:

  1. Aldehydic group.
  2. Carboxylic acid group.

Question 16.
Give the names of the following functional groups: (CBSE 2007)

  1. -OH
  2. -CO

Answer:

  1. Alcoholic.
  2. Ketonic.
MP Board Solutions

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 4 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is meant by the term functional group?
Answer:
An atom or a group of atoms, which makes a carbon compound reactive and decides its properties, is called a functional group.
For example aldehyde, ketone etc.

Question 2.
Which R functional groups always occur at the terminal position of a carbon chain?
Answer:
Aldehydic Group, R-CHO (R is the alkyl group),
Carboxyl Group, R-COOH (R is the alkyl group)

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Why a candle flame burns yellow, while a highly-oxygenated gas fuel flame burns blue?
Answer:
The most important factor determining the colour of the flame is oxygen supply and the extent of fuel-oxygen, which determines the rate of combustion and thus, the temperature and reaction paths, thereby producing different colour hues. In case of a candle, it is incomplete combustion and the flame temperature is not high. This gives a yellow flame, while a highly-oxygenated gas (e.g., ethyne) flame burns blue because of complete combustion raising a very high temperature.

Question 4.
Why is the reaction between methane and chlorine considered a substitution reaction? (CBSE 2008)
Answer:
Methane reacts with chlorine in the presence of sunlight to form chloromethane and hydrogen chloride. Since chlorine substitutes or replaces hydrogen of methane to form chloromethane, it is considered as substitution reaction.
CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl
With the excess of chlorine, four hydrogen atoms of methane are replaced by chlorine atoms to form carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).

Question 5.
Why does carbon form compounds mainly by covalent bonding?
Answer:
Being tetravalent carbon atom, it is neither capable of losing all of its four valence electrons nor it can easily accept four electrons to complete its octet. Both of these are requirements of ionic bond formation and are energetically less favourable. Carbon completes its octet by sharing electrons and hence, covalent bonding is preferred.

Question 6.
What do you mean by Octane rating?
Answer:
Gasoline is rated on a scale known as octane rating, which is based on the way they burn in an engine. The higher the octane rating, the greater the percentage of complex-structured hydrocarbons that are present in the mixture, the more uniformly the gasoline burns, and the less knocking there is in the automobile engine. Thus, a gasoline rated 92 octane will burn more smoothly than one rated 87 octanes.

Question 7.
What is covalent bonding?
Answer:
The chemical bonding that takes place due to the mutual sharing of electron pairs of two or more atoms of different elements is called covalent bonding. By mutual sharing of electron pairs, atom attains noble gas configuration, e.g., hydrogen molecule (H2), the two H-atoms combine by covalent bonding (H-H).

Question 8.
What are hydrocarbons? Give examples.
Answer:
Compounds of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. Methane, ethane, butane, ethyne, propane, benzene, petroleum products – all are examples of hydrocarbons.

Question 9.
What are saturated hydrocarbons? (CBSE 2011)
Answer:
The hydrocarbons in which valency of carbon is satisfied by a single covalent bond are called saturated hydrocarbons. Alkanes like methane (CH4), ethane(C2H6), propane (C3H8) etc. are examples of saturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons will generally give a clean flame.

Question 10.
Why do ionic compounds have high melting points? (HOTS)
Answer:
Ions have strong electrostatic forces of attraction among them forming ionic compounds. It requires a lot of energy to break these ionic bonds or forces. That’s why ionic bonds have high melting points.

Question 11.
What are homologous series? (HOTS)
Answer:
Homologous series are:

  1. Compounds with the same formula.
  2. Belong to the same functional group.
  3. Have general methods of separation.
  4. Have similar chemical properties.

Show similar gradation of physical properties, e.g., boiling points of alcohol increase with an increase in their molecular weights. Similarly, solubility decreases with increase in molecular weights.

Question 12.
What is a heteroatom? What is the heteroatom in the alcohol functional group? (HOTS)
Answer:
In a hydrocarbon chain, one or more hydrogen atoms can be replaced by other atoms according to their valencies. The element wh replaces hydrogen in the chain is called a heteroatom, e.g., in alcohol (-OH) functional group, oxygen is the heteroatom.

Q.3. What are soaps ? How many types of soaps are there ? 
Ans. Soap are sodium or potassium salts of carboxylic acids. Soaps are of three types: 
(i) Hard soaps, (ii) Soft soaps, (iii) Transparent soaps.

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compound

Q.4. What are the differences between soap and detergent ? (mp 2009)
Ans. Differences between soap and detergent ;

carbon and its compound

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons by the way of their burning in air and bromine test inferences.
Answer:
1. Saturated compounds are burnt in air, to give a clear (blue) flame but the burning of unsaturated compounds (alkenes and alkynes) give a sooty (yellowish) flame because saturated compounds contain comparatively less percentage of carbon which is completely oxidized by the oxygen present in the air.

On the other hand, the percentage of carbon in unsaturated compounds is more and it requires more oxygen to get completely oxidized that is not fulfilled by air. So, due to incomplete oxidation, they burn with a sooty flame.

2. Bromine-water test: Br2 water is a brown coloured liquid:

  1. Unsaturated hydrocarbons give addition reaction with Br2. So, the colour of Br2 water gets decolourised.
  1. Saturated hydrocarbons do not react with Br2 water, so the colour of B2-water does not get decolourised.

Question 2.
Two compounds A and B react with each other in the presence of a dehydrating agent to produce an ester. Both react with Na to evolve hydrogen gas. On reaction with Na2CO3, only A evolves CO2. Identify the functional groups present in A and B giving the reason for your answer.
Answer:
Compound A contains -COOH group while compound B contains -OH group. Since, carboxylic acids and alcohols react with each other to form an ester, out of A and B, one is an alcohol and the other is a carboxylic acid. This is further strengthened by the reaction of both with Na to evolve hydrogen gas. Only carboxylic acids react with Na2CO3 to evolve CO2, A contains -COOH group while B contains -OH group.

MP Board class 10th Science Solutions

Question 3.
An organic compound ‘X’ is widely used as a preservative in pickles and has a molecular formula C2H2O2. This compound reacts with ethanol to form a sweet-smelling compound ‘Y’.

  1. Identify the compound ‘X’.
  2. Write the chemical equation for its reaction with ethanol to form compound ‘Y’.
  3. How can we get compound ‘X’ back from ‘Y’?
  4. Name the process and write a corresponding chemical equation.
  5. Which gas is produced when compound ‘X’ reacts with washing soda? Write the chemical equation.
  6. Answer:
  7. Compound X is ethanoic acid which gives and ester (Y) when reacts with ethanol.
  8. CH3COOH + CH3CH2OH → CH3COOC2H5.
  9. Esters give back alcohol and carboxylic acid in the presence of acid or base.
  10. Saponification reaction: CH3COOC2H5 + NaOH → C2H5OH + CH3COOH + Na.
  11. CO2 gas is released,
    CH3COOH + Na2CO3 → 2CH3COONa + H2O + CO2.

Question 4.
“Saturated hydrocarbons burn with a blue flame while unsaturated hydrocarbons burn with a sooty flame.” Why?
Answer:
Saturated hydrocarbons have only C-C and C-H single bonds and thus, contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms per carbon atom. With sufficient oxygen, saturated hydrocarbons burn completely and give blue flame,
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain a carbon-carbon double bond (C=C) or triple bond (C=C). Hence, they contain less number of hydrogen than carbon. Unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo incomplete combustion and give yellow flame along with black sooty carbon.
C2H4 + O2 → CO2 + 2H2O + C(s)

Question 5.
What makes some molecular formula compound different? (HOTS)
Answer:
The arrangement makes them different compounds with identical molecular formula but different structures are called structural isomers. Organic compounds show a great level of isomerism. Isomers may be structural (due to difference in the arrangement of C atoms forming chain) or stereo (due to arrangement of bonds in a chain). With the increase in the number of carbon atoms in molecular formula, it leads to an increase in the number of isomers.
For example:

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