INDIAN CONSTITUTION
Short Answer type questions
Q.1. Explain the right of equality. (MP 2000, 04, 05, 06, 07, V)
Ans. Under the right of equality, our constitution guarantees that all the citizens will be equally protected by the laws of the country. This also implies that the state can’t discriminate against citizen on the basis of race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Every fundamental right also contains some exceptions. For instance the right to equality says that the state can make a special provision for children and women. To have such special protection is not against the right to equality.
Another aspect of the right to equality is that the state can’t discriminate against any one in employment in government service.

Q.2. which fundamental duties should be followed by the Indian citizen ? (MP 1998, 2002, 04, 10, 11, 15,)
Or
What fundamental duties should an Indian citizen follows ? (MP 2006, 09,)
Ans. The Indian citizen should be follow the following fundamental duties:
(i)                  Every Indian citizen should obey the constitution, (ii) they should respect their national flag,(iii) It is the duty of the citizen to respect the ‘national Anthem’ of their country, (iv) They must protect its freedom and defend the integrity of India, (v) It is their duty to safeguard the public property and not take to violence, (vi) The citizens should protect the wildlife of our country and our rich culture heritage, (vii) The citizens should promote harmony among the various religions and languages, (viii) They should also develop the spirit of scientific enquiry and have an attitude of humanism.

Q.3. Write five characteristics of Parliamentary from of government. (MP 2012, 15, 16, 17, V)
Ans. Characteristics of Parliamentary from of Government :
1.       In parliamentary from of Government the chairperson the state is nominal head of the state.
2.       More powers are enjoyed by Prime Minister and council of ministers.
3.       Parliament from the cabinet.
4.       President is the nominal head, more powers are enjoyed by council of ministers.
5.       Cabinet follows the principles of social responsibilities.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. How many fundamental rights have been given by the constitution ? Explain.(MP 1998, 2001, 02, 03, 14, 15, )
Ans. Our constitution guarantees to Indian citizens six fundamental rights. These are:
(i) Right to equality, (ii) Right against exploitation, (iii) Cultural and educational rights, (iv) Right to freedom, (v) Right to freedom of religion, (vi) Right to constitutional remedies.
           (i) All citizens are equal in the eyes of the law and government irrespective of their caste, creed or race, (ii) The Indian constitution has  provided the right against exploitation. The Indian constitution guarantees that there shall be no exploitation of any citizen, (iii) Culture and educational rights is for language, script and culture. Any community which has a language and a script of its own has the right to conserve and develop them, (iv) The right to equality is helpful  in getting service according to qualification, (v) Every citizens is free to preach, profess and propagate religion of his choice as long as it does not harm peace of country, (vi) There is a right to remedy any action of the government against the citizen’s right through the courts. This facility is given under the right to constitutional remedies.

Q.2. What is the independence of India act ? Write its main provisions. (MP 2017)
Ans. Independence of India Act 1947: As per the plan of Mountbatten, the Government prepared the draft of ‘Independence of India Act’ and sent to the congress and the League for consent. After acceptance the British Government passed the bill and it became an Act on 18th July, 1947.
                Main provisions of the Act: The Act had 20 sections and 2 schedules. Main provision of the Act were:
1. India was to be divided into two sovereign states-India and Pakistan. The responsibilities of the Government of India were to be handed over to Indian leaders.
2. As per the Act there would be a Government General to be appointed by the Emperor of Britain in each of the sovereign states India and Pakistan.
3. Borders of both the sovereign status were decided. It was stated in it that Bengal, Punjab and Assam were to be divided and their borders were to be demarcated on the basis of plebiscite.
4. legislative Assemblies of both the states will have the right to formulate their Constitution. Pending formulation of the constitution by both the states, the states shall be governed as per the provisions of the Government of India Act.
5. the post of secretary of India was to be abolished and in its place a Secretary of the Commonwealth shall be appointed.
     No act passed by the British Parliament after 15th August, 1947 was to be applicable to India. Thus India got independence from the British control after the Independence Act became operational. Indian independence was the dawn of a new era and the Indians were to decide their own fate.






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