IMPORTANT EVENTS OF THE POST
INDEPENDENT INDIA 

Short Answer Type questions
Q.1. Why government of India asked Pakistan to stop/ block the entry of Kabalies ? (MP 2017)
Ans. After independence two new nations emerged and other native state were given liberty to merge either with India or Pakistan or remain independent. Most states merged with either India or Pakistan between the borders of both the countries viz. India and Pakistan. The king of jammu and Kashmir decided to retain the independent status of his state. On 22nd October 1947 Kabailies of North west Border and many Pakistani attacked Kashmir because Pakistan wanted to merge Kashmir in their nation. Raja Hari Singh of Kashmir requested India to help him. When it was event that Pakistan government itself is helping the Kabailies, then on the advice of Lord Mountbatten the government general of government of India lodged a complaint in the security council that the Kabailies, with the help of Pakistan has attacked Lashmir, which is a part of India. Immediately Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru asked Pakistani govt. to block the entry of kabailies.

Q.2. What were the effects of Indo-China war ? (MP 2009, 11, 14, 15,)
Ans. (1) The relations between the two countries strained. 
(2) A large area of the Indian territory went in the hands of china.
(3) India's international image and Non-aligned policy were harmed. 
(4) In the foreign policy of India realism was considered better than idealism.
(4) There was improvement in the Indo-America relations

Q.3.  What were the conditions laid down for the Tashkent Agreement ? (MP 2009, 11, 14,)
 or 
What is Tashkent pact ? (MP 2015, 17, V )
Ans. Even after the ceasefire, disturbances in the border areas did not stop. To end this situation, Soviet union took special interest and invited both the parties to Tashkent for talks. On 14th January 1966 talks started between the president of Pakistan Ayub Khan and Prime Minister of india, Lal Bahadur Shastri, ultimately on 19th  January, 1966 the historical agreement was signed by both the countries, was known as Tashkent pact. 
      Important conditions of this agreement were as follows : 
      (1) Both the countries agreed to build harmonious relations like good neighbours. 
      (2) Both parties agreed to call back their armies and restore the positions as it was before 5th   August 1965. Both the parties will abide by the conditions of cease-fire. 
      (3) Both the parties agreed to abstain from interfering in the internal matter of each other, discourage publicity against each other and restore diplomatic relations. 
      Besides, it was also agreed that relation between both the countries in the field of economic, commercial and culture sectors shall be made cordial.

Q.4. When and why did Maharaja Hari Singh ask the government of India for help ? (MP 2016)
Ans. On  22nd October 1947, the kabailies of north west border and several Pakistanis attacked Kashmir, Pakistan wanted to merge Kashmir in it therefore within 4 days the Pakistani army reached Baramula, 25 miles away from Srinagar. Therefore government of Kashmir  (Maharaja Hari Singh) asked for help to save the state from the attacks and requested to include Kashmir in India.

Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Write the effects of Indo-Pakistan war of 1965. (MP 2009, 12, 13, 15, v)
Ans. In 1965 War, India won following were the effects of this war:
(1)    Pakistan wanted to solve Kashmir issue by wars but but she could not succeed.
(2)    Pakistan believed that the Muslims population of Kashmir will side with Pakistan but such thing did not happen. India prove that the base of secularism in the country is strong.
(3)    The moral of the people of India and Indian army was very high and Indian army fought with indigenous weapons.
(4)    The role of the United Nation’s in the Indo-Pak war was important: the united nation’s succeeded in its efforts to restore peace because America and Russia both extended their valuable support to the United Nations.
(5)    For Pakistan this war proved fatal; the defeat in the war proved that the army dictatorship has bot been effective. 

Q.2. Write short notes on:  (MP 2016, 17)
(a) Relations between India and Bangladesh.
(b) Rise of as nuclear power.
           Or
Write importance of nuclear power.
            Or
Explain how has india achieved the status of a Nuclear Power ? (MP 2013)
Ans. (a) Relation between India and Bangladesh : Bangladesh came into being as a sequal to the Indo-Pak war of 1971. When people of east Bengal revolted against the Pakistani rule, India’s sympathy was for the Bengal freedom fighters. Frightened by the genocide by Pakistan many refuses from east Bengal came to India. India arranged for their stay food etc. and imparted training to the soldiers of the Mukti Wahini.
On 26th March 1971 Sheikh Mujiburrahaman made a declaration through a secret broadcast about the  Independent Bangladesh; on 17th April 1971 a declaration was made regarding the independent sovereign state of Bangladesh.
      India gave recognition to Bangladesh on 6th December 1971. On 8th December Bangladesh appointed Hussain Ali as its first  ambassador to india.
India and Bangladesh first treaty : On 10th December 1971 Bangladesh signed its first treaty with India. Under which India offered to help Bangladesh for its nation building activities on military and economic b asis.  Soon after the defeat of Pakistan the government of Bangladesh was set up in Dhaka. Due to the pressure of India and International community, Pakistan had to Sheikh Mujiburraham, leader of the Awami league on 8th January 1971.
  (b) Rise of India as a Nuclear Power : Right after the achievement of independence India has been making efforts in the direction of putting to use the atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Atomic energy act 1948 and Atomic energy commission were the pioneering steps in this direction. The technology advancement in the direction of atomic research development was made with the setting up of tata institute 1945, and Bhabha Atomic research center 1957. In the year 1956 APSARA research reactor was set up in the year 1969 the Tarapur atomic energy center set up in India at Tarapur (Maharashtra), Kota (Rajasthan),  kalapakkam (Tamil Nadu), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), kakrapar (Gujrat) and Kaiga, India had achieved the technology of atomic energy development. Taking out atomic fuel, to separate it and convert it into Uranium making fuel out of its, production of heavy water, manufacture reactor, development of all processes of the fuel and waste management, in all these processes India had achieved competence.
        In 1947 Indira Gandhi conducted a peaceful nuclear test in Pokhran (Rajasthan). This test was not carried out with the intention of obtaining weapons. Between 1977 to 1980 India was firm on its policy of not making atomic weapon. In her second term she adopted the policy of wait and watch. In this reference, the ‘Integrated guided missile programme’ is most important. The eminent scientist A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (former President of India ) was became the Chairman of this programme. Under the programme, the missiles in India made are : Prithvi, Trishul, Naag and Akash.




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