FREEDOM MOVEMENTS AND RELATED 
 EVENTS

Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. The slogan 'Do or Die' is released to which national movement ? How far this movement succeeded ? (MP 2006, 17)
Ans.The slogan'Do or Die'  is related to quit India Movement. Gandhiji gave this slogan to the people of india. Gandhiji along with other leaders of congress were arrested on the night of 9th August, 1942 against this, several strikes, demonstrations, meetings etc. were organized at various places. This movement has sparked an unparallel political awakening amongst the Indians and led India to the gate of independence. 

Q.2. Why did the incidence of Jallianwala Bagh take place ? What were its effects ? (MP 2012)
or 
Write the incidence of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. (MP 2014)
Ans. Rowlatt act come into force from March 1919. There were protest all over India against the Act. On 10th April two powerful leaders of congress Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saifuddin. Kichlu were arrested for protest against the act. To protest against there arrests there was a meeting on 13th April in a park called Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. This is a small park surrounded with houses. general Dyer without giving any warning to people ordered his soldiers to open fire. The fire lasted for 10 minutes and nobody could escape from there. Nearly 1000 people died and 1200 people injured. Many people jumped into the well out of fear. This incidence was known as the Jallianwala massacre".

Q.3. When and why the Simon Commission sent to India ? Why the Indian opposed it ? (MP 2000, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 16)
Ans. The British government appointed a commission under the chairmanship of Mr. Simon on November 1927, So, it was called the Simon Commission.
    The main aim of the commission was to look into the working or the Act of 1919 and to suggest changes. The reforms introduced by the government of India's Act of 1919 were a far from the aim of Swaraj and were condemned by the congress and the league as unsatisfactory. This followed a mass agitation by the nationalists. The commission did not consists of any Indian representative that caused great resentment among the masses Consequently, anti Simon demonstrations were organized over the country. 

Q.4. What was Rowlett Act ? (MP 2014) 
Ans. Rowlett Act was passed by British Judge, Sir Siydney Rowlett on 10th March 1919 under the imperial Legislative council. The act allowed certain political cases to be tried without juries and permitted internment of suspects without trial. 

Q.5. What was the importances of lahore session of 1929 in the history of freedom struggle ? (MP 2014) 
Ans. Following were the imporatnces :
1. In 1929 Dec, in the Lahore convention the working committee of congress got the approval, to start the 'Civil Disobedience Movement'. 
2. 26th Jan 1930 as the total independence day. 
3. In the convention of 1929, congress aimed at total independence. 


Long Answer Type Questions

Q.1. What is meant by Civil Disobedience Movement ? Clear the programme and importance of it. (MP 2001, 03, 05, 09, 10, 15)
Ans. The congress at the historic Lahore session of 1929 launched civil disobedience movement to achieved complete independence. The Lahore sessions of the congress gave voice to the new militant spirit. It passed a resolution declaring ‘Purna Swaraj’ meaningful independence, to be the congress objective.
          The civil disobedience movement was led by Mahatma Gandhi on March 12, 1930 with his famous Dandi March. Gandhiji along with his 78 followers started from his Asharam at Sabarmati on a march to Dandi on the sea coast on foot and broke the law by making salt, people were asked to manufacture contraband salt, to picket liquor shops, opium dens and foreign cloth dealer’s shops. Students were asked to leave their colleges and schools and government workers to quit their services.
          The salt law violence was nothing but a symbol of the Indian people’s. refuse to live under British made laws in India. This act become necessary as the ‘British government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually’.
        The civil disobedience movement had involved millions of people, men women and people belonging to all regions and communities. As soon as the movement started all the important leaders including Gandhiji and Jawaharlal Nehru were arrested. By the beginning of 1931, 91,000 persons were in jail and 67 papers had been banned.



Q.2.What were the reasons of the failure of Quit India movement ? Write any five. (MP 2017)
Ans. 1. The draft resolution, which was sent to a close door meeting of the congress working committee at Allahabad a fortnight after her return of stafford cripps, fell into the hands of British intelligence. The Indian communist party had switched loyalty to the British after the attack of Soviet Union. Thus, the plan failed before it could be officially adopted; or preparations made for its implementation. All leaders were subsequently arrested immediately.
2. the immediate impact was a massive set of disturbance across the length and breadth of India : Bombay, Ahmedabad, Puna, Kanpur, Delhi, Banaras, Allahabad, Patna, Jamshedpur etc. The spill-over effects lasted for quite a bit of time, as city after city and people after people set about letting their views known in no uncertain terms. There were rampant attacks on a huge numbers of government offices and all signs of government authority. There were also physical attacks on Europeans.
3. Local violence : In the first week, 250 railways stations were destroyed or damaged, 500 post  offices and 150 police stations were attacked. In Karnataka alone, there were 1600 incidents of cutting of telegraph wires. Unarmed crowds faced police and military firing on 538 occasions. They were also machine-gunned by low flying aircraft.
4. Several political groups active during the Indian independence movement were opposed to the Quit India Movement. These included the Muslims league, the Hindu Mahasabha, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, the communist Party of India and the princely states.
    The Muslim League opposed the Quit India Movement as it was of the view that if the British left India in its current state, Muslims as a minority would be oppressed by the Hindu majority. Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s opposition to Gandhi’s call led to large numbers of Muslims cooperating with the British, and enlisting in the army.
     Hindu nationalist parties like the Hindu Mahasabha openly opposed the call for the Quit India movement and boycotted it officially. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, the president of the Hiindu Mahasabha at that time, even went to the extent of warning a letter titled “Stick to your posts”, in which he instructed Hindu Sabhaites who happened to be “members of municipalities, local bodies, legislatures or those serving in the army.. to stick to their posts” across the country, and not to join the Quit India Movement at any cost.
5. Lack of direct leadership, large protest and demonstrations were held all over the country. Workers remained absent en masse and strikes were called. Not all demonstrations wdere peaceful, at some places bombs exploded, government buildings were set on fire, electricity was cut and transport and communication lines were served.
6. Suppression of the movement : The British swiftly responded with mass detentions. Over 100,000 arrests were made, mass fines were levied and demonstrations were subjected to public flogging. Hundreds of civilians were killed in violence many shot by the police army.



7.2. Contribution of Madhya Pradesh in Freedom Struggle



Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. How did the people of Madhya Pradesh made their contribution in non-cooperation movement ? (MP 2015)
Ans. The people of Madhya Pradesh participated in the non-cooperation movement and took part in the activities like movement against consumption of liquor, Tilak Swaraj fund, boycott of foreign cloth, boycott of foreign schools and establishment of national educational institutions, handloom industry etc. the advocates abandoned their practice. Those advocates, who went to courts wore Gandhi caps. District committees ignored government orders and hoisted national flag. Due to this the sense of fear and feeling of slavery of the British Empire ended. Examples of religious harmony were also seen.

Q.2. How did Jhanda Satyagraha take place ? (MP 2017)
Ans. In 1923 an incident with regard to the honour of our national took place. The incidence was so powerful that even the Britishers had to accept it.
         This incidence his gone in the history of freedom struggle and is known as ‘Jhanda Satyagraha’. The congress party constituted a committee under the leadership of hakim Ajmal Khan to assess the extent of mental preparedness of the people in favour of the Non cooperation movement. The Jabalpur Congress committee  decided to honour Mr. Khan and hoist the Tricolour on the building of Jabalpur municipality. The British government took this act of honouring Mr. Khan as an insult of the British rule and ordered the police to not only removed the flag but insult it by crushing it under feet. Consequently the people were extremely annoyed. They agitated and this agitation became a national agitation only after few months. Against this action (insulting the flag) of the British rule, Pandit Sunderlal, and some volunteers took out a procession along with  the tricolor. The police arrested all the leaders. Pandit Sunderlal was tried in the court of law and imprisoned for six months the members of jabalpur municipality the leaders resigned commonly. To protest it many national leaders hoisted flag on the town hall.  

Q.3. Name the news papers publish for the national awakening of Madhya Pradesh. (MP 2012, 15,)
Ans. Newspapers publish for the national awakening of Madhya Pradesh- Karmvir,Ankush, Subodh sindhu (Khandwa), Ajay Sudha (Harda), Arya Vaibhav (Buhanpure), Lokmat, Sarswati Vilas (Jabalpur), Prajamandal Patrika (Indore) etc.



Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What impact Civil Disobedience Movement and Quit India movement had on Madhya Pradesh ? (MP 2015, 16,)
Ans. Civil Disobedience Movement : By declaration of Mahatma Gandhi in April 1930 Civil disobedience movement started all over India. On 6th April Gandhiji broke the salt law and started Dandi March. From that only in Madhya Pradesh the movement started Under the leadership of Seth Govind Das and Dwarka Prasad Mishra the movement started. In Jungle Satyagraha also people took active part police fired on people.
Quit India Movement : In august 1942 Gandhiji declared “Quit India Movement” On the 9th August many big leaders including Mahatma Gandhi were arrested. In this situation, many big leaders of Madhya Pradesh like pt. Ravi Shankar Shukla, Dwarka Prasad Mishra returned to Madhya Pradesh to fight against such oppressive activities of the British rule. People organized themselves in every village, tehsil and town, thus a beginning of the struggle was made.



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