MAIN CHALLENGES BEFORE DEMOCRACY 
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Illiteracy is an obstacle in the path of healthy public opinion or democracy.
or
What are the hurdles in the way of Indian democratic system ? (MP 2016) 
Ans. democracy is related to social awareness. If people are literate they will be more conscious about their duties responsibility and rights and thus in that country democratic set up will be more strong. thus for awareness and consciousness the education and literacy is essential. educated persons only take interest in politics, only educated citizens can judge which candidate is right and which is wrong Thus, in election procedure also he elects the right candidate due to his reason. Thus the functioning of the whole democratic set up is dependent on education. That is why it is said that education is a boon for democracy and without democracy cannot run smoothly. 

Q.2. Write five cause of terrorism. 
Ans. (1) colonial rule: The colonial rule and the oppressive policies and the activities of  the colonial rulers are also responsible for terrorism. The citizens resort to terrorist activities to resist the activities of the colonial rule and achieve freedom.
(2) Modern means of information and technology are being used by the terrorists in their activities; these means are television, internet, mobile, fax etc. Terrorist very easily achieving their targets due to there means of communications.
(3) Hearted between to nations : Nowdays one nations conducts terrorist activities in another country and imparts training and makes available to them money,, weapons and other facilities to spread terrorism in that/those countries. This is also known as cross border terrorism. India is also a victim  of cross border terrorism. The neighbouring nations of our country are helping terrorists in different ways and help them to spread terrorism in our country. 
(4) unemployment and poverty : Due to unemployment and poverty also people are involved in such antisocial activities. Due to poverty they cannot fulfil their basic needs and thus in need of money they are tempted to join such organisations. 

Q.3. Describe the reasons of population explosion. (MP 2009, 12, 13.) 
or 
rite any four cause of population growth in India. 
Ans. Following are the cause of population growth in India: 
(1) High birth rate : Due to high birth rate population in India increased. Before 1951 there was rapid growth in population. Before 1921 the population was high but at the same time death rate wads also very high so population was constant. 
(2) child marriage : In India, in villages the marriage take place at an early age in many families due to this the birth rate is very high.
           In most of the part of our country, marriage at performed at an early age. Hence, the period of child birth becomes longs and give births to more children.
(3) Social and religious acceptance : In all the religions functions of the Hindu there is necessity of husband and wife. In Indian society children are the gift of God. Society consider only those families who have many children. Thus population in our country increases. Those people specially girl,s are not married are looked by Indian Society. so nearly all girls get marry and give birth to children. 
(4) High life expectancy : In India since last few years many facilities are provided to man. Due to this reasons the life of man has become easy and comfortable and thus there is an increase in life expectancy.
(5) Decline in the death rate : There was a time when a large number of our people died of small fox., cholera, malaria, plague, and other diseases. Modern medical and sanitation facilities., new researches in the field of health and medical aid have sharply reduced mortality. Large-scale famines have been averted as a result of improvement in transportation and despatch of food grains to the famine-stricken areas the average life expectancy now stands of 54 as compared to 48 in 1957. 
(6) Marriage , an essential need institution: In India, marriage is a social and religious need and every person think it necessary to produce children by marriage. in India man think that marriage is a natural process and thus population increased. 
(7) Illiteracy and superstition : On account of illiteracy, superstition and religious belief some people consider the birth of children as gifts of god. this wrong belief has to be removed through education. In this age of science, it has become possible to control the size of family. 
(8) lack of family planing measures : In our country, very few people believe in planing their family. The use of family planing measures is done on a limited scale. the reasons is that people are illiterate. Therefore, the rate of birth is high. 


Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What is the effect of terrorism on society ? Suggest some measures to removed it. (MP 2009, 10, 15, 17,) 
Ans. Terrorist s the burning problem of today. It is against democracy and humanity. The whole world is facing problem today. Their bad effects are as follows: 
(1) Social disturbances and feeling of insecurity :  A sense of insecurity prevails amongst the people. Due to the violent activities atmosphere of terror is created. people live under tense situation. It disturb the daily life of people. 
(2) economic progress is hampered: Economic progress is hampered, instead of paying attention towards development activities, the government has to pay attention towards combating terrorist activities and helping affected families, this adversely affects the government schemes. 
(3) Loss of life and property : There is considerable loss of life and property. Innocent people are killed. public and private property is damaged.
(4) Obstacle in national unity : Terrorism is the greatest obstacle for the unity of the nation. For personal benefits some people do not think the unity of the nation. 
  Measures to check terrorism; 
(1) spread of education : Spread of education will help in removing terrorism to some extent. Illiterate people sometimes come under the clutches of terrorists. By educating people can understand the bad effects of Terrorism. And can save themselves from cunning people who exploit them and cheat them. 
(2) Develop the feeling of love for nation: Social organisation can feel the hearts of people by love and devotion for nation. feeling of patriotism can keep people away from the social evil like terrorism. Govt. also should try to develop feeling of love for nation. 
(3) Security :  it is the duty of the nation that full arrangement should be made for the security of the nation. Military arrangement secret department should become more strict. Police department should also become vigilant. 
(4) International efforts : Terrorism is not the problem of India only but it is an international problem so all nations should try to end it. On internation level all the nation should stand together and steps soul be taken to oppose it strongly. All the nations should stop relations with those nations who encourages the terrorism. 
(5) Provide employment to people : Due to need of money many people follow the path of terrorism. In our country many people are unemployed so they can fulfil their basic needs. In such case they can take the path of terrorism. It is thus essential to provide many jobs to new generation people. 
(6) Development programmes: By development programmes activities of terrorists can be checked. There activities are more popular in dense forest areas and undeveloped areas. If these areas are developed and connected with other parts the terrorist activities can checked to some extent. 

Q.2. How can we remove unemployment from India ? Suggest some measures to removed it. (MP 2009, 15, 17, 19, )
Ans.  Following are the means to remove the problem of unemployment from India:
(1) Control the size in population: The rising population should be controlled, this is necessary along with steps to increase employment opportunities. fast increase in population increasing problem in society.
(2) Development of small and cottage industries: These industries help people engage themselves in part time employment. Capital investment is less and family members themselves run these industries. These industries help the farmers to work in their spare time according to their capacity and fruitfully put to use their labour and craftsmanship. They can invest their small saving and earn additional income for their family. The government should also promote such industries by providing  them capital.
(3) Vocational educational : There is needs of change in the education system of tyhe country. The students should be encourage and helped to opt for employment oriented courses after passing high school examination, this will enable them to get employment.
(4) Investment in public sector: Investment in public sector should be made on a large scale to remove unemployment. In the private sector also setting up large industrial units which are labour intensive should be set up. Government should control and regulate setting up of capital intensive large industrial units where less human labour input is needed otherwise it will give rise to unemployment.
(5) Development of subsidiary occupations : In the rural areas subsidiary occupations dairy development, pisciculture, poultry, horticulture and floriculture should be encouraged. 
(6) Training facilities : Facilities for training of unskilled workers should be organised, for this training centres should be opened as per the demand for labour in specific trades/ sector. mobility of labour should be encouraged by giving them necessary help and assistance.
(7) Extension of rural employment schemes: Development schemes for the rural areas should be extended further, more agriculture service centres should be opened. Self employment programme, Jawahar Rojgar Yojana, 'Samriddhi Yojana' etc. should be extended further. The 'Prime Minister Rojgar Yojana', Employment guarantees schme etc. 
should also be extended in cities.
(8) Development of agriculture: New schemes in the sector of agriculture should be introduced.