FUNCTIONING OF INDIAN DEMOCRACY
10.1 functioning of Indian Democracy

Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. Explain the procedure of passing the money bills in the Parliament. (MP 2006)
Ans. Money bills can’t introduced in the Rajya Sabha. It must be introduced in the Lok Sabha. A money bill has to be passed by the Lock Sabha. Then it is sent to the Rajya Sabha for its recommendation. It sends it recommendation about the bill to the Lok Sabha within 14 days. The Lok Sabha may or may not accept these suggestions which The Rajya Sabha has  made in their case. If the Rajya Sabha does not return the bill within those 14 days, even then the bill is deemed to have been passed by both the houses. After a bill is passed by both houses of Parliament, it is sent to the president for his assent. The president usually gives his assent and sign the bill.
  
Q.1. Write the functions of the prime minister. (MP 2016)
Ans. The major function of the Prime Minister are:
(i) The first major functions of the Prime Minister is the formation of the cabinet.
(ii) Allocation of departments or changes in the departments of the ministers.
(III) Presiding over the meeting of the cabinet.
(iv) Prime Ministers acts as a link between the President and the cabinet.
Q.2. Describe the functions of District panchayat. (MP 2013)
Ans. Functions of district panchayat:
The major functions of District Panchayat are as follows:
(i) To exercise control over the Janpad Panchayats and Village Panchayats, ensures coordination among them.
(ii) To coordinate the schemes of the Janpad Panchayats.
(iii) To implement such schemes of the district which fall in the area of two or more Janpad Panchayat.
(iv) To forward to the state government, demands for grant for special purposes.
(v) To advise the state government in the matters of development related activities, social forestry, family and child welfare and games and sports.
(vi) To do such other work which the state government directs.

Long Answer Type Questions

Q.1. What are the main functions of parliament? (MP 2016)
Ans. The main functions of parliament are as follows:
(1)    Farming laws: The legislature prepares laws for properly governing the country.
(2)    Amendments in the constitution: The constitution has given powers of Amendments in the constitution to the legislature, parliament make necessary amendments as per needs.
(3)    Administrative functions: The legislatures also discharges the important of exercising over the Executive. In the Parliamentary from of Government the Executive is responsible to the Legislature, Thus Legislature exercise control over the executive.
(4)    To decide policy for state and the government: The legislature does the work of deciding policies and giving directions to the state. It gives sanction to the policies formulated by the Executive.
(5)    Functions relating to finance: The legislature does the work of imposing or reducing taxes and according sanctions to expenditures of Executive.
Thus it exercise control over the money received from the people.
(6)    Discussions of subjects presented in the house: The members deliberate on different subjects and problems placed before the house. They discuss all aspects of the proposed law before passing it so that the law may really benefit the public.

Q.2. Write any four characteristics of Federal from of Government. (MP 2017)
Ans. As per the first Schedule of the constitution India is a federation of states. Thus federal form of government has been set up in India. The powers of government are not centralise at one place and are divide between the center and the state and both have independence in their respecting jurisdiction.
          Following are the characteristics of federal form of government:
1.       Dual government, 2. Division of powers, 3, Written constitution, 4, Supreme court is protector of the constitution.


10.2 Central Executive : President, Vice-president, Council of Minister, Power and Functions

Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. Describe the emergency powers of the president. (MP 2005, 09, 10,)
   Or
Under which circumstances does the president declare emergency? ( MP 2002, 03, 04,)
Ans. The emergency powers of the president can be described as follows:
1.Emergency caused by war, aggression or internal armed rebellion: If the president thinks that the security of the country is threatened by war or external aggression or internal armed rebellion, he can declare the state of emergency for the whole of India or any part of it.
2. Emergency caused by constitutional breakdown: If the state governor reports to the president that the government in the state can’t be carried on in accordance with the constitutions, the president can declare the state emergency. They president can take over the entire work of the executive and dissolve and suspend the state assembly.
3. financial emergency : When the financial stability or the credit of India is threatened, he can declare a finance emergency. He can reduce the salaries of the government servant.

Long Answer type Question
Q.1. Describe the functions of council of ministers. (Any five)
Ans. Functions of the cabinet : cabinet is the centre around which the whole political wheel rotates or moves. Thus cabinet is very important. Its functions are as:
1.       To help President and give suggestions: According to the constitution the main functions of the cabinet is to give suggestions to the president. President respect the suggestions given by the cabinet. At the time of emergency the cabinet helps the president.
2.       To form the policies: the cabinet formulates all the national policies of the government policies regarding the Home and Finance is the main functions of the cabinet. The smooth functioning of the internal matters is the responsibility of the cabinet. Various departments are divide among the various cabinet ministers. Cabinet ministers co-operate each other. The cabinet only decides the foreign policies, our relation with foreign countries, treaties with other nations. To declare war and to end the war is also decided by cabinet ministers or cabinet. Parliament supports the decisions of the cabinet
3.       Appointments: In the real sense cabinet minister only appoints Chief Justice, Governor, Chief Election  Commissioner, Head of Army, navy and air force. The President only announces the names which are divided by the cabinet. Thus the major appointments made by the President are decided by the cabinet.
4.       Formation financial policies: A large number of important bills including money bills are introduced and carried through by the cabinet ministers. The annual Budget, giving the estimates of income and expenditure for coming years is presented by the finance Minister in the Lok Sabha as directed by the cabinet. If the budget is not passed the cabinet has to resign. But it is passed there is majority of these ministers in the parliament. finance commission is also organized by the president at the decision made by the cabinet.
5.       Decisions on important issues: in the matter of issuing ordinances, the President acts on the advice of the cabinet. No declaration of emergency can be made by the president unless the union cabinet recommends to him in writing. Important decisions like formation of new states, devaluation of rupee, changes in the state territories are decided by cabinet only. Decisions of national awards, foreign tours, tours within the state etc. are other important decisions which are taken by the cabinet.


10.3 Supreme Court

Short Answer type Questions
Q.1. “Supreme court is the protector of the constitution “. Explain. (MP 1998, 2000, 02,)
Ans. Supreme Court is the final interpreter of the constitution. All the important constitutional and laws, acts has to be followed by the orders of the Supreme court. Thus, Supreme court is the highest judicial authority to uphold the constitution. So, “Supreme court is the protector of the constitution”.

Long Answer type questions
Q.1. What are the powers and functions of Supreme court ?
Ans. The following arethe powers and functions of the Supreme court:
1.       The original Jurisdiction : The original Jurisdiction of the Supreme court extends to all such cases which are brought directly to the Supreme court. The Supreme Court of india has original Jurisdiction over certain cases like any dispute between:
(i)                  The government of India and one more state.
(ii)                The government of India and any state or states on one side and one or more states on other.
(iii)               Two or more states where the question of the existence or extension of certain legal right is involved.
If any person or institution, the government violets the fundamental rights of person, he can directly apply to the Supreme Court for his rights. Thus, it is the protector of fundamental rights.
(2) Appellate Jurisdiction: The Supreme court is the highest court of appeal. Generally three types of appeals are made to the supreme court . they are as follows:
(i) Constitutional cases: Any case in which interpretation of the constitution is involved, is called constitutional case. There can be an appeal to the Supreme court against any judgement, decision or order of the High Court.
(ii) Civil cases: civil cases decided by the High Court can go to the Supreme court if one of the parties is not satisfied by the decision of the High court.
(iii)   Criminal cases: In cases too, one can make appeal to the Supreme Court if a high Court decision is reversed and if a person is sentenced to death or imprisonment for life.

(3) Advisory Jurisdiction: The president may seek the opinion of the Supreme Court in certain cases or on a question of law or fact of public importance. The President is free to accept or reject the advice of the Supreme court. 



10.4. Local Self Government


Short Answer type Questions
Q.1. give the importance of Local Self Government. 
Ans. (i) To solve the problems of the people through politics and Govt, (ii) Democratic Govt. has important place in Indian parliament, (iii) To save time, money and power by local self government. 

Q.2. Write any four functions of the governor. (MP 2010, 11, 15,) 

Ans. The major functions of the governor are as follows  : 
(i) The governor appoints the leader of the party who has own by majority, as the Chief minister. 
(ii) He appoints other ministers at the advice of the chief minister.
(iii) The Governor appoints the Advocate General, Chairman of public service commissions and other senior officers of the state.
(iv) Governor's assent is essential on the bills, passed by the legislative assembly. 
(v) Governor appoints the judges of the courts falling under his jurisdiction.
(vi) He summons meetings on the legislative assembly, suspends them and adjourns them. 

Long Answer type questions
Q.1. Explain the Panchayati Raj system and describe the functions of local bodies. (any five)(MP 2017)
Ans. Panchayati Raj system for rural India: Gram Panchayats have been formed for the villages of the state for maintaining cleanliness Providing health services, lighting, drinking water and other similar facilities. if the size of the villages is small then one gram Panchayat is formed for two or more villages. The people of rural areas manage the affairs of their villages through the Gram Panchayats. Such arrangement is popularly known as 'Panchayati raj System' Mahatma gandhi was great exponent of the Panchayat Raj system. He believed that so long as the village life is not based on democratic system, real democracy in the country can not come. The local government in different states of the country has been organised according to the laws formed in this respect by the legislative Assemblies of the respective states. Therefore the system of Local Government in all the states uniform. 
Functions of Local Bodies
The functions of Nagar Panchayat, Municipalities and Municipal Corporation are same, these institutions perform following functions in there area of operation: 
1. To make arrangement for lightning in public buildings and roads. 2. To keep the town/city clean and suitable arrangements are made for this. 3. To make suitable arrangement for stay cattle and manage cattle pounds, 4. Registration of birth and deaths, 5. Arrangement for water supply , 6. Construction and maintenance of roads and public buildings, 7. Fire protection and fire fighting and arrangement for vehicles and equipments for the people, 8. Organise fairs etc. for the people. 
            The local bodies provide several facilities to the citizens and fulfill their local needs. 










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