Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Name a few main freedom fighters who lead the freedom struggle of 1857. (MP 2014)
Ans. The main freedom fighters who lead the freedom struggle of 1857 were : 
(i) Bahadur Shah Zafar, (ii) Bakht Khan, (iii) Nana Shaheb, (iv) Tatya Tope, (v) Rani Laxmi Bai, (vi) Mangal Pandey, (vii) Abdullah Khan, (viii) Kuwar Singh, (ix) Begum Hazarat Mahal. 

Q.2. Name the places most affected by freedom struggle of 1857. (MP 2017)
Ans. The places most affected by freedom struggle of 1857 were: 
(i) Gwalior (ii) Meerut (iii) Delhi, (iv) Lucknow, (v) Kanpur. 

Q.3. what were the causes of failures of 1857 struggle of freedom ? ( Any two) 
Ans. The two main causes for the failures of 1857 struggle for freedom were : 
(i) Lack of leadership, (ii) Premature outbreak. 

Q.4. What is Subsidiary Alliance ? who introduced it ? (MP 2017) 
Ans. The Subsidiary Alliance system was a method introduced by Lord Wellesley to subjugate similar powers without the coast and  botheration of Wave. Any Indian ruler whose security was threatened was encouraged to seek help and enter into an alliance with English, who promised to protect the ruler from external attacks and internal revolts.

Q.5. What is Boycott ? explain. (MP 2017) 
Ans. By Boycott radical nationalists not only meant to boycott the foreign goods but also, the boycott of government jobs, institutions and awards. Self rule was corresponding to boycott. In  the last decade of 19th century, the idea that if outflow of money and poverty had to be curbed, the locally made (Swadeshi) goods should be used more and more. Use local goods became synonymous to nationalism.

Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Why were Indian rulers angry with the British rule ? (MP 2010, 13, 17) 
Ans. There was a lot of discontent among land lords and Zamindars due to the British territorial extension policies. Lord Wellesley introduced a scheme to bring the Indian rulers under the British thumb. He named this plan the Subsidiary Alliance.
             The Doctrine of lapse police of dissolution of state, lord Dalhousie caused many Indian states to be a part of the British empire. British took control of many state like Punjab, Sikkim, Satra, Sambalpur, Jhansi,Nagpur etc. The British government ended up state titles conferred to Nawab's  of  Awadh. Tanjore and Karnataka which caused a political destability there in. British were disrespectful towards the last Mughal emperors.
This caused a state of anxiety among ruling families whichever state British took control of their soldiers, raftsmen and people connected with various other trades were adversely affected, thus Indian rulers angry with the British rule.

Q.2. What do you know about revolutionaries ? What methods did they adopt against the British Administration ? (MP 2013, 15) 
Ans. revolutionaries were true patriotic. They believed that political rights cannot be achieved through non-violent and constitutional means. The revolutionaries were of the view that independence and self-rule can be got by violence and threats to the British rule.
              Following methods were adopted by the revolutionaries against British Administration:
             (i) Self-rule can be achieved by violence.
        (ii) To achieve there objectives the revolutionaries formed secret organisations of revolutionaries imparted military training.
        (iii) Revolutionaries were ready even for sacrificing their lives  for independence.

Q.3. How were the cottage industries affected by British policy of economic exploitation ? (MP 2013, 17)
Ans. Dissatisfaction arises from the economic exploitation with the establishment of British empire and the industrial revolution in England. Indian cottage industrial suffered a blow, the goods exported goods from England were made tax free, to sell in the Indian market. This made the money flow out of Indian and destabilized the economy. This drove the Indians to struggle against the economic slavery.

Q.4. What was the immediate cause of freedom struggle of 1857 ? (MP 2014)
Ans. On 29th March 1857, a soldier named Mangal Pandey refused to use the larded cartridge and shot a British office in a feat of anger. Mangal Pandey was arrested and execute on 8th April 1857 Mangal Pandey was first one to sacrifice his life in the revolt. This was the immediate cause of freedom struggle of 1857.

Long  Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Write short notes on : 
(a) Tatya Tope (b) Rani Laxmibai, (c) Nana Shaheb. (MP 2009, 11)
Ans. (a) Tatya Tope : Tatya Tope was one of the valiant soldiers of struggle of 1857 who had their loyalty was Peshwa family, Tatya Tope will remembered for his patriotism, courage, strategizing skills, military acumen, perseverance in the absence of resources, fearlessness and guerrilla warfare tactics The entire responsibility of Nana Sahed Peshwa's military campaign was on the shoulders of Tatya Tope. ]
             Tatya Tope palyed a major role in acquiring Gwalior for the Queen of Jhansi Laxmibai. After the death of Laxmibai, Tatya Tope continously engaged himself in guerrilla warfare and challenged British army in Central India and Bundelkhand he was arrested by British by deceit and betrayal. He was caught in the jungle of Aaron (district Guna) and was hanged in shivpuri on 18th April 1859.

(b) Rani Laxmibai : In the year 1854, following the death of Raja Gangadhar rao, the husband of Laxmibai, British government denied their adopted son the throne and merged jhansi with their empire, Rani Laxmibai protested and fought fiercely. Having defeated by Hurose she landed in kalapi and with the help of Tatya Tope she acquired Gwalior. Brtish commandor Hurose besieged Gwalior Fort. On 17th June 1858 Laxmibai sacrificed her life in soldier's outfit Stories of her valor are still sung and inspire the Indians.

(c) Nana Saheb : Nana Saheb was another important soldier in the freedom struggle. He was the adopted son of Bazirao Peshwa II and stayed in Bithur. After the demise of Bazirao Peshwa, British Government refused to grant a title or pension to Nana Saheb. Therefore, Nana Saheb along with his loyal soldiers chased British army off from Kanpur and declared himself a Peshwa. Tatya Tope and Ajimullah were his loyal army chiefs.

6.2. National Awakening and establishment of 
Political Organizations in India

Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What was the impact of western education in national awakening in Indians ? (MP 2017)
Ans. Impact of western culture, education and thinkers : Lord Macaulay introduced western educations in India. his intention in spreading western education in English was to develop a class of people who would work in the interest of British government. But on the country the spread of English education inspired Indians to free themselves from the clutches of foreign rule. With the knowledge of english language, Indians became acquainted with the western literature, thinking and philosophy and administration.

Q.2. Why did the Europeans staying in India protest against the Illbert bill ? (MP 2010, 12) 
Ans. The viceroy Lord Rippon attempted to make a bill to abolish the policy of discrimination. This was prepared by law member Illbert, that's why it was called Illbert bil. According to this bill; Indian magistrates and session judges were given entitlement to hear criminal cases against Europeans. 
        Prior to the introduction of this bill Indian magistrates were not authorized to hear cases against European criminals and Illbert bill was a step to remove the discriminating called it a black ruling. At last British government had  to withdraw the Illbert bill, This affected Indians adversely.
Q.3. Why were extremist more powerful than moderates ? (MP 2016)
What were the difference between the moderates and extremists ? (MP 1996, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, )
Write five causes of the rise of extremist. (MP 2012)
Ans. Differences between Moderates and extremists: 
Moderates: 1. The moderates believed in the peaceful and constitutional measures for the realization of their objective. 
2. They favoured to carry out the economic reforms by remaining under the rule of Britisher. 
3. The moderates did not hate the British rule. They did not find anything wrong in the western culture. 
4. Moderates were never persecuted by the British government. 
5. Some of the moderates were Dada Bhai Naoroji, Surendranath Banerjee. 
Extremists: 1. Extremists were the militant nationalists. They were against the petition and peaceful methods, to attain their goals. 
2. Extremists aimed at achieving complete swaraj. They wanted to have their own government. 
3. The Extremists hated the British rule. 
4. Many extremists were sent to Jail by Britishers.
5. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Vipin Chandra pal, Lala lajpat Rai were extremists. 

Q.4. Name the extremist leaders. (MP 2016)
Ans. (i) Bal Gangadhar Tilak, (ii) Vipin Chandra pal, (iii) Lala lajpat Rai.

Q.5. 'Swaraj is my birth right' and I shall have it' with whom do this proclamation is associated. 
Ans. Bal Gangadhar Tilak.

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