NATURAL DISASTERS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What are the Tsunami prove areas in India ? (MP 2009)
Ans. Coastal regions of Indian ocean and Aabian sea in India are Tsunami prove areas. In December 2004 Tsunami occurred in Indian  ocean.  Tamil Nadu was badly affected by it. Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, and Pondicherry were also affected to some extent. 

Q.2. How epidemics spread ? Explain. (MP 2009, 13)
Ans.
Epidemics spread due to the following reasons :
(1) Cause of epidemics are worms, germs, bacteria, protozo, fungi and polluted water.
(2) Polluted water increase the number of mosquitoes which cause epidemic.
(3) Polluted food items also cause epidemic.
(4) Large crowd of tourists and passenger from out side and affect of natural calamities on the atmosphere also brings epidemics.
(5) Through water also the epidemic spread rapidly.

Q.3. What do you mean by "Disaster management"? (MP 2009, 13, 15, 17)
or 
Write down the main stages of elements of disaster management.
Ans. Disaster management is a chain of activities which are carried out not only before and after the disaster but carried out during the period disaster also. It is believed that disaster management is efforts to prevent the calamity, minimise its effects, timely action and activities to bring there situation to normalcy.
   main stages of disaster ,management: Disaster management lays stress on four important things:
(1) Advance preparation,
(2) Action at the time of disaster,
(3) To store normalcy and rehabilitation.
(5) Plan for preventing the recurrence of the disaster and minimise the ill effects of the disaster.

Q.4. Write the effects of flood. (MP 2017)
Ans. Following are the effects of flood: 
Effects of flood: Flood affects the life of human beings in the following manner:
(1) Physical harm: The flood waters harm the buildings, some buildings are raised to the ground. There is danger to the lives and property. Land slide also occur due to heavy down pour of rains and following water.
(2) Deaths and public health : People and cattle drown/die in the flood waters. Epidemic, diarrhoea, bacteria, infections, malaria, etc. spread.
(3) Hindrance in water supply : The water source get contaminated and there is problem is supply of potable water.
(4) Crops and food supply : The fields (crops) are innudated and the grain godowns are also harmed and damage is caused to food grains.
(5) Change in the soil structure : The soil is also affected and due to sea water there is a danger of soil becoming salty.

Q.5. what is the meaning of disaster ? How many types of disasters are there ? (MP 2014) 
Ans. The disaster is calamity either natural or which occurs due to human mistake. This results into lost of lives and natural resources and ultimately the people suffer.
        There are two types of disasters:
(i) Natural disaster, (ii) Disaster related with human follies.


 Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Explain the causes of flood and write the steps to check it. (MP 2016)
Ans. Causes of flood: 
(1) Leakage or cracking of bunds, dams etc : Main regions of flood in India are leakage or cracking of bunds, dams etc. and releasing excess water from barrages. The danger of flood is also increasing because of defective construction of bunds, old dams etc.
(2) Deposit at the bottom of river : The water that are following from Himalayan rivers bring with them large quantities of soil and this is deposit on the land and areas near the sea coast. This soil is deposit on the plains of Uttar Pradesh. Consequently the bottom of the rivers and their water surface is coming up. Thus every year the flow of these river is taking the from of floods.
(3) Land slides : In the mountainous regions, the river flow gets blocked due to land slide and water resevoirs are formed; then suddenly they crack and floods occur. In the Himalayan region land slide are common.
(4) Development of transport and communication : In the mountainous regionsd the land has become unstable due to construction of roads, deforestation, uncontrolled cutting of hills etc. In the Himalayan area on an average 60,000 cubic metre soil is removed in construction 1km. long road, so far 50,000 kilometres of road has so far been constructed in the Himalayan region. This soil accumulation is also a cause of floods.
       Steps to check to stop flood : (1) Many reservoirs can be made on the upper areas of the rivers.
(2) small dams should be constructed on the tributaries and books so that the possibilities of floods in the main river can be minimised.
(3)  Dense plantation should be done on the upper catchment areas of the river.
(4) In the plains, water can be stored in resevoirs to be constructed on unuse land.
(5) Attention should be paid towards the safety of bunds constructed on the coasts.
(6) Total or partial rehabilitation of people of the villages which are surrounded by waters between the bunds.
(7) Encroachment of human settlements on the lands adjacent to the banks of rivers should be prevented.
(8) Deforestation of forest located in the catchment area of rivers should be controlled.
(9) Land slides can be controlled by ensuring only limited use of explosive for construction of roads in the hilly area.



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