TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION
 AND FOREIGN TRADE
3.1 Transportation and Means Of Communication
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What do you mean by transport and communications ? 
Ans. Transport: The process of carrying man and materials from one place to other is called transport. 
      Communication: The process of transmitting information from one person to other is called communication. 

Q.2. What is main objective of the Prime Minister's village roads scheme in India ?
Ans. The main objective of the Prime Minister's village road scheme is to connect all the villages having a population up to 500, to all weather roads.

Q.3. Name the main international naval routes of India.
Ans. The main international naval routes of India are:
1. Ports of Western coast: Kandla, Bombay, Nhava Sheva, Marmagoa, New Mangalore and Cochin. 
2. North Eastern ports: Tuticorin, Innawe, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, Kolkata and Haldia. 

Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What do you mean by metro-railways ? (MP 2009)
Ans. In big cities metro-railways are very common. It is built underground and so it is also known as under-ground railways. This railway connect different places of metro-cities to each other. It moves very fast. At present it is not used for the transportations of goods and is used by people (passengers) only. In two metro cities Mumbai and Kolkata the work of metro-railways is completed.

Q.2. What is the difference between Telegram and Fax system ? (MP 2013)
Ans. Difference between Telegram and Fax system:
 Telegram system: 1. In this the permanent wires have to be tied on poles.
2. In this systems symbols are used and code is also essential here.
Fax system: 1. Fax machine is used in this system. Machine is connected by telephone numbers.
2. In this system there is no use of symbolic language or codes.

Q.3. What do you mean by satellite communication ? (MP 2010)
Ans. Satellite communication is the most important and powerful means of modern days. Satellite made by human being which are send in the space by rockets. These artificial satellite moves around the earth and send information of climatic conditions natural resources, daily activities on the earth through pictures. Aryabhatta, INSAT, I.R.S. are some of ther important satellite send by India.

Q.4. "Roads are lifeline of Indian economy" Explain. (MP 1999, 2002, 03, 4, ) 
   or 
What is importance of road transport in industrial development of India ?
Ans. Roads and road transport play an important role in our economy. It is the oldest media of transportation and as India is an agriculture country, its main population lives in villages and Indian roads join 6 lakhs villages together. It is the cheapest means of travelling as well as flexible both for human vehicles and animals movement. That is why it is termed as lifeline of Indian economy for it brings perishable goods faster to the market than any other mode.

Q.5. Distinguish between Dock and Port. (MP 2013) 
Ans. Dock and Port:
Dock: 1. Docks are meant for loading in and unloading goods from the ships.
2. There are only general facilities on Docks.
Port: 1.  Ports are meant for cooling and going of ship and their stay.
2. There are resting facilities on the ports.

Q.6. Write short notes on any four means of communication. (MP 2015)
Ans. Following are the means of communication:
(1) Post offices : Post offices play an important role in the communication system. There are presently about 1,56,000 post  offices in the country.
(2) Telegram : For telegram lines were installed on pillars. Message were not sent through these lines. With the help of electricity and code machine. All the countries use the technique of sending message by 'Morse Code' using code language.
(3) Internet : Internet is the short form of the word International Network. With the help of this service a person can see an event happening in any country, contact person and get desired information.
(4) E-mail : Under this system, the computer is connected to a telephone then the system the computers is connected to a telephone then the message is typed on the computer which can be read on the computer at the place where the message has been sent.

Q.7. Which are the main hindrance of the internal Navigational Transport ? Write any two. (MP)
Ans. The main hindrance of the internal navigational transport are:
(1) Seasonal rivers, (2) River level, (3) Lack of proper navigation.

Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. "In India distribution of railways is unequal" Explains. (MP 2017) 
Ans. It is true that there is no equal of distribution of railways in India. Rail routes are developed in those area only which is economically developed and which is favourable from land and surface point of view. Thus we can distribute the development of rail routes in three catagories.
(1) Regions of highly developed rail routes : The region is spread from plain of Ganga and Satlaj in the north to Punjab and West Bengal. The main stations of these regions are Ludhiana, Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Allahabad,Varanasi, Asansole and Howrah etc. 
(2) Medium density of rail routes : In this region peninsula plateau and plateau of south are included. The important stations are Ahamadabad, Badodra,Chennai, etc.
(3) Low density of rail routes : In mountaineous regions, plateau regions in villeyes desert areas and forest areas the rail routes are less developed. In these regions railways are not developed due to uneven surface and dense forest. Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradersh, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya, Bastar region and many parts of Orissa are the places where rail routes are not much developed.
       Coastal areas in the west and east of India. Peninsula railways are not developed. Coastal line in east and west is cut into various parts and due to hills rail routes are not developed properly. In eastern coast Howrah to Kanyakumari rail routes are developed and in western coast Konkan railways are developed. It is 837 k.m. long.

Q.2. "Television is the best medium of communication." Explain. (MP 2009)
Ans. Television is the best means of communication. It started in India on 15th September 1959 in New Delhi. Television was invented by "George Beared". It is an audiovisual means. We can see it and hear it. In modern age it is used for entertainment, giving news, sports, education and for literature purpose. Through television thousand of people get information about the world by news channel. Sitting at home we come to know what is happening in the world. Now various channels are displayed by television. People can enjoy sports and games sitting at home people get various knowledge about different types of culture. By television we get and economical knowledge. We get weather reports also by television. Thus it is the best means of communication.



3.2 Foreign Trade or International Trade
Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. What do you mean by Foreign Trade or international trade (MP 2010, v) 
Ans. When goods are exchanged by two or more countries it is called foreign trade or international trade. For example the country may exchange wheat with rice.

Q.2.  Describe about main import in country. (MP 2004, 05, 09,)
Ans. India is developing country. So, fulfil the demand of people  India has to import. India imports petroleum, fertilizers, electrical goods, special machinery pulp, news-print, medicines, cotton, woolen garments, machinery and synthetic fiber. 

Q.3. Write the export item of India. (MP 2004, 05, 09) 
Ans. Export item of India are agriculture equipment, mineral, cashewnut, tobacco, rail engine, handicraft. 

Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Explain the measure adopted to promote exports in India. (MP 2017)
Ans. Government efforts for export promotion: 
1. Setting up of different organisation: Government of India has setup Foreign trade institute,Export Import advisory council, State trading corporation, Export promotion council, Cotton textile corporation, Jute corporation,Import Export bank to open new markets for export, for publicity of domestic goods in foreign countries and to extend facilities to exporters.
2. Trade promotion institute: To ensure coordination between different institutions engaged in exports promotion and to provide necessary services to them a Trade development organisation has been set up.
3. Establishment of state trading corporation: This corporation has been set up to export a variety of things, expand the existing market, and provide necessary facilities to the exporters.
4. Establishment of export houses: This organisation has been set up to provide financial assistance to recognised organisations from the marketing development fund. There are seven export resource centers viz. kandla (Gujrat), Santacruz (Maharastra), Kochi (Kerala), Chennai (Tamilnadu), Noida (Uttar Pradesh), Phalta (West Bengal), Visakhapattanam (Andhra PRadesh). Custom clearance facilities are available here.
5. Indian import-export bank: This bank has been set up to promote imports and exports.
6. Green card: To accelerated the pace of exports the government had issued green cards to institution which are engaged in cent per cent exports.
7. Liberal license system: The government have declared a new import-export policy and made the licensing system very liberal, this has encouraged free trade.



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