Section A

Objective Type Questions

Q.1. Choose the correct answer: 

1. The unit of rate of reaction is :
(a) Mole per litre per second ✅

2. The nature of lemon juice is:
(a) Acidic ✅

3. which of the following of is example of non-metal
(a) Carbon  (b) Hydrogen (c) Sulpur (d) All of the above ✅

4. Which of the following is not an inert gas:
(b) Ca ✅

5. In which of the following light the rate of photosynthesis is highest:
(a) Red

Q.2. fill in the blank : 

1. The Citric acid is present in orange .

2. mosquito is a Parasite.

3. Hemophilia is a genetics disease.

4. The focal length of Plane mirror is infinite.

5. pituitary gland is called as Master gland.

Q.3.Match the columns : 

Q.4. Answer the following in one word/sentence :

1. Deficiency of which hormone causes diabetes disease ?
Ans: Insulin

2. The study of fossils is called ?
Ans: Palaeontology

3. Which  lens is use to remove long sightedness ?
Ans: Convex

4. What is e.m.f. of dry cell ?
Ans: volt.

5. Coliform  bacteria is found in ?
Ans: Human intestine.

Sectoin B

Q.5. What is pH value of pure water ?
Ans. pH value of pure water is 7.
.What is the unit of rate of reaction ?
Ans. The unit of rate of reaction is "mole per litre per second.

Q.6.What are valence electrons?
Ans. The electrons present in the outermost orbit of an atom are called valence electrons.
What are periods ?
Ans. The horizontal rows of periodic table are called periods.

Q.7. What is pollination ?
Ans.  The process of transfer of pollen grain from anther of stamen (Androecium) to stigma of pistil is called pollination.
Compare the growths in animals and plants ?
Ans. Comparison between the growth in animals and plants :

Q.8. Why are traits acquired during the life time of an individual not inherited ?
Ans. The traids acquired during the life time are changes in the non reproductive cells of the organism and are not capable of being transfered on to next generation. The changes occur in DNA of germs are only inherited.
Why are the small numbers of surviving tigers a cause of worry from the point of view of genetics ?
Ans. The small number of surviving tigers is a cause of worry because the tigers have less variations in genetic characteristics among each other. If the natural condition would change drastically then no tiger may survive , It will create a dangerous imbalance in the eco-system.

Q.9.What is power of lens ?
Ans. The reciprocal of focal length (in metre) is called power of lens ,its unit is dioptre.
What is refraction of light ?
Ans. The phenomenon by which a ray of light deviates from its original path, while travelling from one optical medium to another optical medium is called refraction.

Section C

Q.10. Write differeces between strong and weak electrolytes.
Ans. Differences between strong and weak electrolytes:

Why is the respiration called as exothermic reaction ? Explain .
Ans. The complex  molecules of food are decomposed by the oxygen inhaled during respiration.  Food like : rice,potato etc. are made up of carbohydrates. These are broken down to glucose. Glucose during respiration is oxidised and in this process energy is liberated.
Reaction is given below :
                                 C6H12O6+6O ⟶ 6CO2+6H2O+energy

Q.11.The twinkling of star is example of which phenomena ? Explain.
Ans. Star are very far away from the earth. the rays of light coming from star have to cross different layers of atmosphere. The densities (Refractive indices ) of these layers keep on changing. Thus raysd of light from a star pass through these layers of different densities (Refractive indices ) and they are refracted indifferent ways. Sometimes, they are refracted more and sometimes less. Thus, the position of star appears to be changed. this is called twinkling of stars.
What is myopia / Explain with diagram how it can be removed.
Ans. Person cannot see the distant objects clearly. it can be removed by using concave lens.

Q.12. explain Friday's law of electromagnetic induction.
Ans. There are two Laws given by Friday which are:
(i) whenever there is some changes in magnetic flux linked with a coil then an induced electromotive force is developed across the ends of coil and hence current flows through the coil.
(ii) Then induced electromotive force is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux
Draw labelled diagram of D.C .generator.

Q.13. What is short circuit? write its cause .
Ans. Sometimes the electrical wires come in direct contact due to defective and damaged wiring, so the resistance of the whole circuit becomes almost zero and hence a large current flows. This is termed as short circuiting.
  It may be caused due to following reasons:
(i) Due to defect in electric switches and plugs.
(ii) Due to low grade insulation over the combining wires.
(iii) Due to combination between both the wires.
State Fleming's right hand rule to Setermine direction of induced current.
Ans.  According to this law "if the force finger, middle finger and Thumb of our right hand are so are so stretched that these are mutually perpendicular and if fore finger points the direction of magnetic field, thumb points the force on conductor then the middle finger will show the direction of induced current.

Q.14.The natural gas is a good fuel, why ?
Ans. The natural gas is considered to be a good fuel because :
(i) It has high calorific value.
(ii) It does not produce smoke on burning.
(iii) It pollution free.
(iv) It does not produce any harmful residue on burning.
(v) It is easy to store and transport.
Write any five characteristics of Ideal fuel.
Ans. characteristics of Ideal fuel :
1.  High calorific value,
2. Proper ignition temperature,
3.  Balanced rate of combustion,
4. Easily available,
5. Low percentage of non combustion materials.


Q.15. What is a neutralization reaction ? Give two examples.
Ans. The reaction between an acid and a base which gives salt and water is called as neutralization reaction.
 e.g    (i) NaOH(aq)+HCL(aq)➡NaCL(aq)+H2O(l)

Why does an aqueous solution of soaps are there
Ans. For the conduction of electricity through solution, the ions are required we know that the aqueous solution of acid gives H+ ions which are responsible for conduction of electricity.

Q.16. What are soap ? How many types of soap are there ?
Ans. Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of Carboxylic acids. soaps are  of three types
(i) Hard soaps, (ii) Soft soaps, (iii) Transparent soaps.
Write differences between soap and detergents
Ans. Differences between soap and detergent :

Q.17. Write differences between blood and lymph.
Ans. Differences between lymph and blood :

Draw a labelled diagram of excretory organ of human.

Q.18. Write properties of hormones.
Ans. The properties of hormones are given as follows :
1. These are soluble in water as well as in blood.
2. These are as organic catlyst.
3. They affect the activity of the organs of the body.
4. The activity of hormones towards target cell is not continuous.
5. These are very much activity in a less concentration and perform their functions.
Draw labelled diagram of Nerve cell.

Q.19. State faraday's laws of electrolysis.
Ans. Faraday gave two laws of electrolysis which are given below :
(i) faraday's first law : The mass of ions liberated of deposited at an electrode is directly proportional to the charge following through electrolyte :
         if m be the mass of ions and o be the charge following through electrolyte then.
                                                   mx O   
         or                                       m= zo
Where, Z is a proportionality constant called Electro Chemical Equivalent (E.C.E),
(ii) faraday's second law :  If some amount of charge flows through different electrolytes for same time then the masses of ions liberated or deposited are directly proportional to their chemical equivalent or equivalent weight.
i.e.,                        m x E
On what factors does the resistance of a conductor depend ?
Ans.Factors affecting the resistance of a conductor : The resistance offered by a conductor depends upon the following factors :
(i) Length : The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length i.e., R x l, so a longer wire will have more resistance and shorter wire will have small resistance .
(ii) Area of cross-sections : The resistance of a conducting wire is inversely proportional to its area of cross-section (A) i,e.,
If the wire is thick, then resistance of such wire is less but for a thin wire, the resistance is more.

(iii) Temperature of the wire : The resistance of conducting wires increases with the rise in temperature. When the conductor is heated the charge carriers i,e., electrons start moving with higher velocity and frequently collide with the atoms of the conductor, which increases the resistance.
(iv) Nature of material of conductor :  Resistance of a conductor also  depend on the nature of the conductor.

Section E 

Q.20. Compare physical properties of metals and non-metals.
Ans. The differences between metals and non-metals :

Compare chemical properties of metals and non-metals.
Ans.  Comparesions chemical properties of metals and non-metals.

Q.21. Draw a labelled diaagram of longitudnal section of a flower.
Describe various stages of growth.
Ans. Growth : All organisms increase in size and weight due to various biologic activities. This process is called Growth.
               The following are various stages of growth :
(i) Cell division : The cell first absorbs water and food and matures. This cell divides and redivides to form new cells. 
(ii) Cell elongation : Here the size, mass and cellular products of new cells increase. 
(iii) Cell maturation : During this process, the cells become different from each other as a result of physucal and chemical changes. They assume permanent shape and sizes. It is from these cells that different tisssues and organs are developed.

Q.22. What are real and virtual images ? Distinguish between them with the help of diagram.
Ans. Real image : When the reflacted or refracted light rays really meet at a point them the images thus formed is called real image.

Virtual image : When the reflected or refracted light rays appears to come from a point then the image formed is called virtual image.